IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing vol:54 issue:2 pages:483-498
The classical discrete multitone receiver as used in, e.g., digital subscriber line (DSL) modems, combines a channel shortening time-domain equalizer (TEQ) with one-tap frequency-domain equalizers (FEQs). In a previous paper, the authors proposed a nonlinear bit rate maximizing (BM) TEQ design criterion and they have shown that the resulting BM-TEQ and the closely related BM per-group equalizers (PGEQs) approach the performance of the so-called per-tone equalizer (PTEQ). The PTEQ is an attractive alternative that provides a separate complex-valued equalizer for each active tone. In this paper, the authors show that the BM-TEQ and BM-PGEQ, despite their nonlinear cost criterion, can be designed adaptively, based on a recursive Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. This adaptive BM-TEQ/BM-PGEQ makes use of the same second-order statistics as the earlier presented recursive least-squares (RLS)-based adaptive PTEQ. A complete range of adaptive BM equalizers then opens up: the RLS-based adaptive PTEQ design is computationally efficient but involves a large number of equalizer taps; the adaptive BM-TEQ has a minimal number of equalizer taps at the expense of a larger design complexity; the adaptive BM-PGEQ has a similar design complexity as the BM-TEQ and an intermediate number of equalizer taps between the BM-TEQ and the PTEQ. These adaptive equalizers allow us to track variations of transmission channel and noise, which are typical of a DSL environment.