IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems vol:25 issue:7 pages:1197-1208
Small embedded integrated circuits (ICs) such as smart cards are vulnerable to the so-called side-channel attacks (SCAs). The attacker can gain information by monitoring the power consumption, execution time, electromagnetic radiation, and other information leaked by the switching behavior of digital complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), gates. This paper presents a digital very large scale integrated (VLSI) design flow to create secure power-analysis-attack-resistant ICs. The design flow starts from a normal design in a hardware description language such as very-high-speed integrated circuit (VHSIC) hardware description language (VHDL) or Verilog and provides a direct path to an SCA-resistant layout. Instead of a full custom layout or an iterative design process with extensive simulations, a few key modifications are incorporated in a regular synchronous CMOS standard cell design flow. The basis for power analysis attack resistance is discussed. This paper describes how to adjust the library databases such that the regular single-ended static CMOS standard cells implement a dynamic and differential logic style and such that 20 000+ differential nets can be routed in parallel. This paper also explains how to modify the constraints and rules files for the synthesis, place, and differential route procedures. Measurement-based experimental results have demonstrated that the secure digital design flow is a functional technique to thwart side-channel power analysis. It successfully protects a prototype Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) IC fabricated in an 0.18-mu m CMOS.