International journal of bifurcation and chaos vol:7 issue:7 pages:1451-1496
This paper considers three-dimensional coarse-graining invariant orbits for two-dimensional linear cellular automata over a finite field, as a nontrivial extension of the two-dimensional coarse-graining invariant orbits for one-dimensional CA that were studied in an earlier paper. These orbits can be found by solving a particular kind of recursive equations (renormalizing equations with rescaling term). The solution starts from some seed that has to be determined first. In contrast with the one-dimensional case, the seed has infinite support in most cases. The way for solving these equations is discussed by means of some examples. Three categories of problems (and solutions) can be distinguished (as opposed to only one in the one-dimensional case). Finally, the morphology of a few coarse-graining invariant orbits is discussed: Complex order (of quasiperiodic type) seems to emerge from random seeds as well as from seeds of simple order (for example, constant or periodic seeds).