IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits vol:42 issue:5 pages:1100-1110
There is a growing demand for low-power, small-size and ambulatory biopotential acquisition systems. A crucial and important block of this acquisition system is the analog readout front-end. We have implemented a low-power and low-noise readout front-end with configurable characteristics for Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), and Electromyogram (EMG) signals. Key to its performance is the new AC-coupled chopped instrumentation amplifier (ACCIA), which uses a low power current feedback instrumentation amplifier (U). Thus, while chopping filters the 1/f noise of CMOS transistors and increases the CMRR, AC coupling is capable of rejecting differential electrode offset (DEO) up to +/- 50 mV from conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes. The ACCIA achieves 120 dB CMRR and 57 nV/root Hz input-referred voltage noise density, while consuming 11.1 mu A from a 3 V supply. The chopping spike filter (CSF) stage filters the chopping spikes generated by the input chopper of ACCIA and the digitally controllable variable gain stage is used to set the gain and the bandwidth of the front-end. The front-end is implemented in a 0.5 mu m CMOS process. Total current consumption is 20 mu A from 3V.