Nonlinear equality and inequality constrained optimization problems with uncertain parameters can be addressed by a robust worst-case formulation that is, however, difficult to treat computationally. In this paper we propose and investigate an approximate robust formulation that employs a linearization of the uncertainty set. In case of any norm bounded parameter uncertainty, this formulation leads to penalty terms employing the respective dual norm of first order derivatives of the constraints. The main advance of the paper is to present two sparsity preserving ways for efficient computation of these derivatives in the case of large scale problems, one similar to the forward mode, the other similar to the reverse mode of automatic differentiation. We show how to generalize the techniques to optimal control problems, and discuss how even infinite dimensional uncertainties can be treated efficiently. Finally, we present optimization results for an example from process engineering, a batch distillation.