Journal of Crystal Growth vol:126 issue:1 pages:41-62
As crystallographic defects can have a detrimental influence on the device performance, they have extensively been studied. Mainly during the last decade, however, systematical experimental studies of fundamental defect aspects have been reported. To explain the experimental observations, different theoretical models are proposed in the literature. This paper is not giving a critical overall review, but will only address some recent progress made by the authors in understanding the nucleation and the behaviour of crystallographic defects in silicon. Special attention is given-to extended defect formation, oxide precipitation, critical size and morphology of precipitates, silicon yield stress, and homogeneous dislocation nucleation due to stress build-up near thin film edges. The important role played by point defects will be emphasized. The useful application of the theoretical modelling is illustrated by addressing two typical defect engineering activities, i.e gettering and lifetime engineering. A detailed understanding of defect behaviour and properties forms the basis for the defect engineering science needed to develop future advanced ULSI technologies.