IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices vol:51 issue:8 pages:1274-1280
After studying the properties of hole traps in Part I, attention is turned to the physical processes responsible for generating hole traps in Part II of this work. The applicability of four models to hole-trap creation will be examined. These are the trapped hole-electron recombination model, the electrical field energy model, the hole injection model, and the hydrogen model. To testify these models, stresses have to be carried out not only under substrate hole injection (SHI), but also under Fowler-Nordheim injection (FNI). By combining FNI with SHI, we will be able to control hole fluency independent of the electron-induced hydrogen release. This allows us to determine how important hydrogen is for hole-trap generation. Although it was reported that hydrogen could play a major role in positive charge generation for devices with an Al gate or without a gate, we will show that hydrogen does not dominate hole-trap generation, when poly-si gated devices are stressed under our test conditions. Unambiguous results will also be given to show that key predictions of the recombination model and the electrical field energy model are not observed here. In this paper, the most important process for hole-trap generation is found to be the direct interaction of injected holes with the oxide.