Plasmid DNA (pcDNA1::MOMP) expressing the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of an avian Chlamydophila psittaci serovar D strain and recombinant MOMP (rMOMP) with or without the immunomodulating CpG oligonucleotides (CpG ON) were tested for their ability to elicit an immune response and to induce protection in turkeys against homologous challenge. Two CpG ON were chosen for in vivo application based on their in vitro capacity to stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO) in chicken macrophages and their in vitro capacity to induce turkey lymphocyte proliferation. Priming and boosting of turkeys with pcDNA1::MOMP was able to prevent severe clinical signs and bacterial replication in a turkey model of C. psittaci infection. rMOMP boosting induced high antibody titers, but these did not correlate with the level of protection. Although the CpG ON induced a significant in vitro response, the presence of the CpG ON as an adjuvant generated no significant effect on the immune response or on the protective capacity of the tested vaccination methods.