Severe feed restriction enhances innate immunity but suppresses cellular immunity in chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses
Hangalapura, BN × Nieuwland, MGB Reilingh, GD Buyse, Johan Van Den Brand, H Kemp, B Parmentier, HK #
Poultry science assoc inc
Poultry science vol:84 issue:10 pages:1520-1529
The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of feed restriction (FR) on immune responses of chicken lines divergently selected for high (H) and low (L) antibody responses to SRBC. We hypothesized that severe feed restriction suppresses immune responses and the level of immune suppression differs between birds with different genetic background. Therefore, we tested antibody responses, blood lymphocyte proliferative responses, and production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) by Zymosan A-stimulated blood cells in chicken lines maintained on 3 levels of FR. The H line birds had significantly higher antibody responses, higher ROI production, and lower corticosterone (CORT) levels when compared with the L line birds. Feed restriction induced no significant effect on specific antibody responses to either a T helper 1- (Mycobacterium butyricum) or a T helper 2- (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) type antigen. Feed-restricted birds showed a marked reduction in natural antibodies binding lipoteichoic acid, in vitro lymphocyte proliferation in response to stimulation with concanavalin A, BW gain, and relative lymphoid organ weights compared with the birds fed ad libitum. However, FR birds showed a markedly enhanced ROI production, and plasma CORT levels compared with the birds fed ad libitum. The enhanced ROI production and suppressed lymphocyte proliferation coinciding with enhanced plasma CORT levels suggest stress-mediated immunomodulating effects of FR. A significant treatment by line interaction was found for ROI production; the increase of ROI production was larger in the H line than in the L line under severe FR. The increase in CORT levels was larger in the L line than in the H line under severe FR. Furthermore, the L line gained more BW than the H line under ad libitum conditions. Finally, under severe FR, relative spleen weight was lower in the L line than in the H line. The present findings suggest genetic differences affecting physiological and immunological responses under FR conditions.