Agricultural and forest meteorology vol:121 issue:1-2 pages:37-53
The theoretical background of modeling the gap fraction and the leaf inclination distribution is presented and the different techniques used to derive leaf area index (LAI) and leaf inclination angle from gap fraction measurements are reviewed. Their associated assumptions and limitations are discussed, i.e., the clumping effect and the distinction between green and non-green elements within the canopy. Based on LAI measurements in various canopies (various crops and forests), sampling strategy is also discussed. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.