To understand the mechanisms of sucrose-induced acclimation in relation to plant cryopreservation, sugars, sterols, fatty acids of different lipid fractions (neutral lipids, glycolipids and sphingolipids and phospholipids), as well as free fatty acids were analyzed in proliferating meristern cultures of different banana varieties. The four banana varieties that were selected show different post-thaw shoot regeneration rates (0-53.4%). All mentioned parameters were analyzed using (1) control meristems that were cultured on a normal sucrose concentration (0.09 M), which resulted in low survival after cryopreservation; and (2) 2-week sucrose precultured meristems (0.4 M). This sucrose preculture, essential for regeneration after cryopreservation, resulted in a significant increase of each of seven sugars detected. The ratio of stigmasterol/sitosterol (St/Si) in sucrose-pretreated meristems significantly increased. The sucrose pretreatment also resulted in a significant increase of total fatty acid content of the neutral lipid fraction and of the glycolipid and sphingolipid fraction, as well as the total free fatty acid content. The individual fatty acid content of the phospholipids was differently changed by the sucrose pretreatment for the given varieties studied. In most cases, sucrose pretreatment resulted in an increase of the double bond index DBI in the neutral lipids and a decrease of DBI in the glycolipids and sphingolipids, in phospholipids as well as in free fatty acids. Principal component analysis of all collected data revealed that (1) for the control material, sucrose and total sugar contents were closely linked to the post-thaw shoot regeneration, suggesting that sucrose and total sugar may be main limiting factors to survive cryopreservation; (2) accumulation of large quantities of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose and total sugar) in sucrose-pretreated material cannot explain the differences in survival after cryopreservation of the four banana varieties. We assume that a minimal amount of sugars is needed in meristern cultures to survive cryopreservation. Still, other limiting factors do influence the survival following the sucrose pretreatment. We observed that the parameters which are closely linked to the post-thaw shoot regeneration are a minimal change in the ratios of St/Si, the minimal change of the DBI of phospholipids and free fatty acids, as well as linoleic acid content (C18:2); and (3) inositol, raffinose, myristic acid (C14:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) were present in small quantities; however, they could be correlated to survival after cryopreservation, suggesting that they may be also involved in cryopreservation process.