Theoretical and applied genetics vol:96 issue:2 pages:294-300
To obtain homozygous genotypes of apple, we have induced haploid development of either the female or the male gametes by parthenogenesis in situ and anther culture, respectively. Of the shoots obtained, which were mainly of a non-haploid nature, some could be derived from fertilised egg cells or from sporophytic anther tissue. In order to select the shoots having a true haploid origin, and thus homozygotes, we decided to use the single multi-allelic self-incompatibility gene as a molecular marker to discriminate homozygous from heterozygous individuals. The rationale behind this approach was that diploid apple cultivars contain 2 different alleles of the S-gene and therefore the haploid induced shoots obtained from them should have only one of the alleles of the single parent. The parental cultivars used were 'Idared' (parthenogenesis in situ) and 'Braeburn' (androgenesis), and their S-genotypes were known, except for 1 of the 'Braeburn' S-alleles. To stimulate parthenogenetic development 'Idared' styles were pollinated with irradiated 'Baskatong' pollen, the S-alleles of the latter (2n) cultivar were also unknown. The cloning and sequence analysis of these 3 unidentified S-alleles, 1 from 'Braeburn' and 2 from 'Baskatong' is described, and we show that they correspond to the S-24-, S-26- and S-27- alleles. We have optimised a method for analysis of the S-alleles of 'Idared/Baskatong'- or 'Braeburn'-derived in vitro plant tissues and have shown that this approach can be applied for the screening of the in vitro shoots for their haploid origin.