The tegumental epithelium of the outer dorsolateral region in the proximal part of the coxae in the mid- and hindlegs of both workers and queens of the ants Odontomachus rixosus and O. simillimus is differentiated into a conspicuous and hitherto unknown exocrine gland. The glandular cells display a clear microvillar differentiation of their apical cell membrane, and are lined with the tegumental cuticle, which in this part contains crack-like channels perpendicular to its surface, that carry the glandular secretions to the outside. Apical microvilli support the transport of substances, and contain an extension of tubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum in their centre. The function of the gland may be that of providing lubricant substances to the articulation region of the generally heavily sclerotized ponerine ant species. The gland is also found in several other ponerine and amblyoponine species, but not in the ectatommine species studied. The foreleg coxae lack a basicoxal gland in all species examined, which may be explained by the more limited articulation between the thorax and the coxae in the forelegs compared to the mid- and hindlegs.