Temporary pools are traditionally considered as refuges where the conspicuous anostracans are protected from predation. While this is true for the size-selective predation by fish, there is compelling evidence that invertebrate predation is an important biotic stress regulating temporary pool communities. In rock pools in southeastern Botswana, we studied the impact of some suspected invertebrate predators on populations of the freshwater anostracan Branchipodopsis wolfi by means of observations and manipulative experiments. In a survey of 45 pools, the relationship between B. wolfi natural population sizes and the abundance of suspected predators were never negative for turbellarians and mosquito larvae. When dragonfly larvae, notonectids or tadpoles were present, the anostracan populations were generally non-existent or very small. In enclosure experiments with turbellarians, there was a significant effect of predation within one hour of the start; the average daily predation rate was about 1/4 anostracan per turbellarian. Anostracans from a pool with few turbellarians were slightly less vulnerable than those from a turbellarian-rich pool. Furthermore, there was an indication of males being predated on more than females. With dragonfly larvae and notonectids, the predation effect was marked with all six anostracans in an experiment eaten in less than one day by a single predator (predation rate: about one anostracan every 2 h per predator). In a behavioral study, both sexes of B. wolfi avoided swimming above sediment that held more turbellarians than the open patches; there was no evidence for chemical communication with respect to this behavior.