A novel peptide termed locustamyoinhibiting peptide (LOM-MIP) was isolated from brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata-suboesophageal ganglion extracts of the locust, Locusta migratoria. The primary structure of this nonapeptide has been determined Ala-Trp-Gln-Asp-Leu-Asn-Ala-Gly-Trp-NH2. LOM-MIP suppresses the spontaneous contractions of the hindgut and oviduct of Locusta migratoria and of the hindgut of Leucophaea maderae. This novel peptide is, however, structurally different from leucomyosuppressin, a hindgut suppressing peptide isolated from Leucophaea maderae heads. LOM-MIP has a Gly-TrpNH2 carboxy-terminal in common with APGWamide, a penis retractor muscle inhibiting peptide isolated from the snail, Lymnea stagnalis. In addition, it shows carboxy-terminal sequence similarities with locust AKH II which ends in AGWamide. No sequence similarities were found with other vertebrate or invertebrate peptides. Synthetic LOM-MIP showed biological as well as chemical characteristics indistinguishable from those of native LOM-MIP.