Two glandular systems were discovered that secrete their products onto the cuticular surface in ants. The first, the subepithelial gland, was previously undescribed in ants, and is found throughout the body just beneath the epithelium. This gland consists of independent secretory units, each made up of a single gland cell and an associated duct cell that penetrates the cuticle. Its ultrastructural appearance is consistent with possible hydrocarbon production. Examining 84 ant species, the subepithelial gland was found in eight subfamilies (out of 13), although not necessarily in all species. In a single ant species, Harpegnathos saltator, it was the epithelium itself that was enlarged and functioned as a gland. The enlarged epithelial cells secrete their products directly onto the cuticle through distinct cuticular crevasses.