The peptidomes of the corpora allata of Locusta migratoria and Schistocerca gregaria were investigated by both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and nanoscale liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-Q-TOF MSMS). The pyrokinin (-FXPRLamide) family seems to be predominant. In addition to the known pyrokinins, we de novo sequenced four pyrokinins in L migratoria and five in S. gregaria. In addition, one pyrokinin-like peptide (-PRLamide) was identified in S. gregaria. Besides the -(FX)PRLamides, FLRFamide-l, the allatostatins (A family) and numerous as yet unidentified peptides are also present in the corpora allata. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.