Sperm transfer in the pharaoh's ant Monomorium pharaonis (L.) is studied by making longitudinal sections through the gasters of mating pairs fixed in copula. Sperm is transferred inside a spermatophore similar to those found in two other ants, Diacamma sp. from Japan and Carebara vidua. Sharp teeth- ridges are present on the penis valves and, during copulation, these teeth make contact with a thick and soft cuticular layer covering the bursa copulatrix. This ensures an attachment long enough for the successful transfer of the spermatophore to the right position inside the female oviduct. The thick cuticle also protects the queen from serious damage by the male's sharp claspers. After a first successful copulation, sperm is still present inside the male's seminal vesicles, suggesting that males can mate multiply. Additional experiments, where single, initially virgin males are presented to several virgin females, confirm this.