This paper reviews and extends the knowledge of anostracan penile morphology and its taxonomic significance. Since Linder's pioneering classification (based partly on male genital characters), the morphology of both basal and distal penile parts has been applied repeatedly to reorganize or establish higher anostracan taxa, or to extend their diagnoses. In general, the configuration of both basal and distal penile structures follows a constant pattern in well-defined genera. Size and shape of processes and spinulation on the basal tin Linderiella and Chirocephalidae) and the distal parts (in Parartemia), however, may show inter-specific differences. Variability in penile structures in the current genus Brachinella indicates the need for a taxonomic revision of this genus. Similar intra-generic penis morphology may contribute to hybridizability of congeners and validate Dubois' genus concept for use in anostracans.