Objectives. Electrical brain stimulation is used as a treatment for patients with intractable chronic pain and movement disorders. However, the implantation of electrodes and electrical stimulation may induce histological changes around the electrode tip. We aimed to review the histological changes in humans that were electrically stimulated in the brain. Methods. We traced 26 autopsy studies of which 19 patients received cerebellar stimulation and 37 patients deep brain stimulation.Results. Electrode implantation and electrical stimulation induced in part of the cases formation of a fibrous sheath around the electrode, loss of fairly large neurons, and limited gliosis. Macroscopic lesions were present in only some cases, mostly due to pulling at the extension cable in the postoperative evaluation period preceding definite implantation of the electrode wire and stimulator. Conclusions. Electrical brain stimulation induces histological changes in some patients. According to electrical brain stimulation studies in animals, these changes can be related to the charge and charge density per phase (and their interaction).