Twenty-eight taxa of the Cladocera are identified in collections from Papua New Guinea, 17 being new records for New Guinea, bringing the total number of Cladocera taxa reported for this region to 39. Most of the taxa are circumtropical. One species (Sarsilatona papuana) is endemic to Papua New Guinea and northern Australia. The species list includes two species that are normally listed as Holarctic: Alonella nana and Alona rustica. Widespread genera such as Daphnia, Pleuroxus, Disparalona, Acroperus were strikingly absent from the Papua New Guinean material.