A detailed morphological comparison of Trematochromis schreyeni only known from its holotype, collected at the north-western end of Lake Tanganyika, and 'Ctenochromis' benthicola described from the same region, and some additional material led to the conclusion that the two species were conspecifics. Consequently, T. schreyeni is considered to be a junior synonym of 'C.' benthicola, an endemic species to the lake. A redescription of 'C.' benthicola is also given. A statistical test comparing a single specimen and several specimens is difficult to carry out, because no variation is known in T. schreyeni. The present study, therefore, calculated Mahalanobis' distance between the holotype of T. schreyeni and specimens of 'C.' benthicola, and applied the chi(2) test. (c) 2006 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.