In the freshwater area of Vietnam's Mekong Delta, Barbodes gonionotus (Bleeker), Cyprinus carpio L. and Oreochromis niloticus (L.) are often reared together in rice fields. The survival rate and specific growth rate (SGR) of C. carpio showed a large variance. To understand the underlying reasons for this variation, we used multiple regressions for the variables SGR and survival rate, using the results of eight experiments in such polycultures at the Co Do rice-fish experimental station. The SGR of C. carpio declined with increasing rice density. Interspecific competition with O. niloticus also had a negative effect on C. carpio SGR. When fertilizer or manure is added to the trench of the rice-fish field or when extra food can be given to the fish, O. niloticus seems more appropriate than C. carpio. The survival rate of C. carpio depended on season, C. carpio stocking weight and density and the biomass of wild fish species. To obtain higher survival rates, one should stock fewer fish but of a larger size, after thorough eradication of wild fish species.