The isolated hindgut preparation of the cockroach, Leucophaea maderae has provided an effective bioassay tool for the isolation of certain structural types of insect myotropic peptides. Initially, the preparation was used to monitor excitatory and inhibitory activities of numerous HPLC fractions in a study that resulted in the structural characterization of 12 Leucophaea neuropeptides. Subsequently, the preparation was used as the bioassay for the isolation and structural characterization of myotropic neuropeptides of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, and the locust, Locusta migratoria. Five novel myotropic peptides from the cricket were structurally characterized, and 32 separate myotropic compounds were isolated from nervous tissue of the locust. At present, 8 of the locust peptides have been structurally characterized. Isolation studies using this bioassay have been responsible for the discovery of 25 unique neuropeptides, 4 new peptide families, and the initial demonstration of the natural analog phenomenon in insects.