Injection of crude extracts of late vitellogenic ovaries into staged females of the grey fleshfly Neobellieria (Sarcophaga) bullata inhibited oocyte development and biosynthesis of trypsin-like enzymes in the gut. Trypsin synthesis in N. bullata is cyclic and is correlated with egg development, which is discontinuous. A trypsin modulating oostatic factor (Neb-TMOF) was purified from 10,000 vitellogenic ovaries and sequenced by mass spectrometry. Neb-TMOF is a hexapeptide (NH2-NPTNLH-COOH). Injection of the hormone at physiological concentrations (10(-9) M), inhibited trypsin-like synthesis by the midgut of liver-fed female flies, and caused a reduction of the vitellogenin concentration in the hemolymph and of oocyte growth. The role of Neb-TMOF in controlling egg development and the physiological similarities with Aedes-TMOF are discussed.