To investigate the effect of endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the blood maturating gonadotropin (GtH) levels, or to study its interaction with pimozide (dopamine antagonist) and a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog (LHRH-a), sexually mature male and female carps were treated with drugs that may either inhibit GABA biosynthesis or GABA degradation. In females the irreversible inhibitor of GABA-transaminase, gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG), which was to increase the endogenous GABA-ergic tone, had no influence on GtH release. On the other hand, the increased GtH response to the combination of pimozide (PIM) and LHRH-a was clearly enhanced by the administration of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), an inhibitor of the rate limiting enzyme of GABA-biosynthesis. In males the GABA-ergic compound, valproic acid (DPA) decreased LHRH-a stimulated GtH levels. In male carps that received PIM to diminish the dopaminergic inhibition of GtH release, the spermiating response to LHRH-a was increased by administration of MPA. These data suggest that GABA interacts with the action of dopamine and the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) on the release of GtH.