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Title: 2D and 3D High-spatial and High-temporal Resolution Ultrasound Imaging for Characterization of Tendon Mechanics An Image Registration Approach
Other Titles: 2D en 3D ultrasone beeldvorming met hoge spatiële en temporele resolutie voor karakterisering van peesmechanica Een aanpak via beeldregistratie
Authors: De Brito Carvalho, Catarina
Issue Date: 19-Apr-2017
Abstract: Achilles tendinopathy affects competitive and recreational athletes as well as inactive people. The incidence of this pathology in the general population is 1.8%and over 80% of tendon ruptures occur during recreational sports. The etiology of tendinopathies is multifactorial, but tendon overuse is assumed to be one of the main pathological stimuli.
Recently published studies have demonstrated the need for a better characterization of the tendon, more specifically, the local tendon mechanics. By performing this characterization in an accurate and reproducible manner, it isexpected to understand better the mechanical behaviour of healthy tendons and, consequently, better understand the tendinopathy pathogenesis.
Nowadays, characterization of tendon mechanics is done by estimating the global tendon strain and the local tendon tissue displacement. Conventional ultrasonography (6-10MHz) is the imaging modality used for this characterization due to its ubiquitous application for tendinopathy diagnosis and easy accessibility. However, it is believed that conventional ultrasonography is limited due to its low spatial and low temporal image resolution. Furthermore, the high-variability of tendon strain estimations reported in the literature are also assumed to be dependent on the imaging system used for the characterization of the tendon mechanics.
This work presented the investigation of the implementation of a 2D highspatial and high-temporal resolution ultrasound acquisition system for the in-vivo characterization of tendon mechanics. Due to the novelty of this type of acquisition system for tendon strain estimations, a validation step was initially designed. For this validation, 2D global strain estimations were calculated using a developed affine image registration method. Good performance was obtained for this validation step, which allowed the validation of the image registration method as well as the validation of the novel high-spatial and high-temporal resolution ultrasound acquisition system. Afterwards, a 2D deformable image registration method was developed for the in-vivo characterization of the local tendon mechanics. Local tendon mechanics was evaluated by estimating regional tendon strain and local tendon tissue displacement. The developed deformable image registration method and the calculation of the features used for the characterization of the local tendon mechanics were embedded in the KULTeC. The KULTeC is a standalone, easy and intuitive application, which is intended to allow the clinician to easily characterized the local tendon mechanics. Due to the absence of ground-truth for the in-vivo data, a psychometric approach was performed. The obtained results confirmed the reproducibility of the implemented deformable image registration method, demonstrated a convergence of the estimated results with the literature results and demonstrated the capability of the method for the discrimination between asymptomatic and medium to severe tendinopathy conditions.
After the in-vivo characterization of the local tendon mechanics, the impact of out-of-plane motion was investigated. This type of artifact, which affects every 2D imaging modality, has frequently been pointed out as tendon strain estimation errors. For this investigation, 3D high-spatial resolution ultrasound data was used, and the global strain was estimated using an affine image registration approach. The results obtained from this experiment, using in-silico data, demonstrated the theoretically added value of strain estimations using 3D data. However, with the increasing complexity of in-vitro and ex-vivo data, and the increasing complexity of the acquisition setup, the acquisition of 3D high-spatial resolution US images becomes very challenging.
In conclusion, this work demonstrates the successful implementation of 2D high-spatial and high-temporal resolution ultrasonography system for in-vivo characterization of the local tendon mechanics. The high-spatial and high-temporal resolution provided by the used acquisition system together with the developed deformable image registration method have the potential of allowing better and more accurate in-vivo characterization of local tendon mechanics. Furthermore, the developed KULTeC application allows an easy and intuitive use of the developed image registration method in the clinical practice. The results obtained for 3D high-spatial resolution ultrasonography for global strain estimations show that this modality has the potential for elimination of out-of-plane motion but its application to real-world conditions is still technically challenging.
Description: de Brito Carvalho C., ''2D and 3D high-spatial and high-temporal resolution ultrasound imaging for characterization of tendon mechanics. An image registration approach'', Proefschrift voorgedragen tot het behalen van het doctoraat in de ingenieurswetenschappen, KU Leuven, April 2017, Leuven, Belgium.
Table of Contents: • Acknowledgement
• Abstract
• Abbreviations
• List of Abbreviations
• List of Symbols
• Contents
• List of Figures
• List of Tables
• 1 Introduction
• Achilles tendon
• Biomechanics of asymptomatic Achilles tendons
• Biomechanical properties of isolated tendons
• Biomechanical properties of in-vivo Achilles musculotendinous unit
• Biomechanical properties of in-vivo free Achilles tendon
• Summary
• Achilles tendinopathy
• Quantification of Achilles tendon biomechanics
• Quantification of the biomechanical properties of isolated tendons
• Quantification of the biomechanical properties of in-vivo Achilles musculotendinous unit
• Quantification of the biomechanical properties of in-vivo free Achilles tendon
• Thesis scope and contribution
• Thesis goal and structure
• 2D and 3D high-spatial and high-temporal resolution ultrasound imaging system
• Basic ultrasound physics
• Linear ultrasound array transducers
• Low- vs. high-spatial resolution ultrasound imaging
• Low- vs. high-temporal resolution ultrasound imaging
• Ultrasound imaging of tendons
• 2D high-spatial and high-temporal resolution ultrasound imaging of tendons
• 3D high-spatial resolution ultrasound imaging of tendons 41
• Summary
• Global tendon strain estimations for validation of 2D high-spatial and high-temporal resolution ultrasound acquisition system
• Image registration approach for characterization of global tendon mechanics using 2D high-spatial and -temporal resolution US data
• Data
• Validation of 2D global strain estimations
• Analysis
• Results
• Discussion
• 2D HST US in-silico global strain estimations
• 2D HST US isolated tendons global strain estimations
• Comparison with state-of-the-art
• Limitations
• Concluding remarks
• In-vivo characterization of local tendon biomechanics using 2D
• high-spatial and high-temporal resolution US data
• Deformable image registration approach for in-vivo characterization of local tendon biomechanics using 2D high-spatial and high-temporal resolution US data
• Feature estimation for characterization of in-vivo local tendon biomechanics
• Data
• KULTeC - KU Leuven Tendon Characterization application
• KULTeC - Selection module
• KULTeC - Offline processing module
• KULTeC- Visualization module
• Role of KULTeC
• Validation of 2D deformable image registration approach
• Sensitivity of the estimated results to variations of the parameters used for the image registration process
• Inter-observer variability
• Sensitivity of the estimated results to variations of the region of interest selected
• Validation of 2D in-vivo characterization of local tendon biomechanics
• Analysis
• Results
• Discussion
• Predictive validity test
• Convergent validity test
• Discriminant validity test
• Concurrent validity test
• Limitations
• Concluding remarks
• Global tendon strain estimations for investigation of out-of-plane motion using 3D high-spatial resolution ultrasonography
• 3D affine image registration approach for global tendon strain estimations using 3D high-spatial resolution US data
• Data
• 3D in-silico data
• 3D in-vitro data
• 3D isolated tendons data
• Validation of 3D global strain estimations
• Analysis
• Results
• Discussion
• 3D performs better than 2D
• 3D strain estimations for in-vitro and isolated tendons data
• Limitations
• Concluding remarks
• Discussion and conclusion
• Future Work
• Investigation of fiber- and fascicle-sliding effect
• Investigation of influence of different US acquisition systems for the detection of fiber- and fascicle-sliding effect
• Improvement of 3D high-spatial resolution US acquisition
• A 2D Affine parameter file
• B B-spline parameter file
• C Regional strain calculations
• D 3D Affine parameter file
• E Contact media
• Bibliography
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: TH
Appears in Collections:Organ Systems (+)
ESAT - PSI, Processing Speech and Images

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