Arabinosyl-5-azacytosine: mechanisms of native and acquired resistance
Ahluwalia, G S × Cohen, M B Kang, G J Arnold, S T McMahon, J B Dalal, M Wilson, Y A Cooney, D A Balzarini, Jan Johns, D G #
Cancer Research vol:46 issue:9 pages:4479-85
Factors influencing the activity of the nucleoside analogue arabinosyl-5-azacytosine (ara-AC) were studied in P388 murine lymphoblasts in vitro and in vivo, in variants of these cells with artificially acquired resistance, in the naturally resistant colon 38 carcinoma in vivo, and in a panel of six human tumors maintained in continuous culture. Differences were noted not only between the sensitive and artificially developed resistant variants of P388, but also between the naturally sensitive (P388) and naturally resistant (colon 38) tumors. The artificially developed resistant P388 cell lines showed an inhibited capacity to accumulate nucleotides derived from ara-AC and deoxycytidine, whereas the accumulation of cytidine nucleotides remained unchanged. Studies of the initial velocity of facilitated diffusion of ara-AC showed only minor differences between parental and resistant lines, while the nucleotide formation rates from both ara-AC and deoxycytidine were markedly depressed in the latter cells. It is concluded, therefore, that the failure of resistant P388 cells to accumulate these compounds results not from a transport deficit per se but rather from a failure to convert the nucleosides to nondiffusible (i.e., phosphorylated) species inside the cell. This failure was accompanied by a substantial reduction in the incorporation of a radiolabeled product derived from deoxycytidine into the nucleic acids of the resistant clones. The common factor responsible for the resistance of P388 variants toward ara-AC appears to be a markedly decreased level of deoxycytidine kinase activity. The naturally resistant colon 38 carcinoma, on the other hand, in addition to a decrease in the activity of its deoxycytidine kinase, showed a lower level of activity of all its purine and pyrimidine kinases, along with a notably elevated nucleoside triphosphatase activity (with ATP as substrate) when compared to P388. These differences were reflected in lower endogenous nucleoside triphosphate pool sizes in colon 38, and in a lower level of ara-AC-5'-triphosphate accumulation in colon 38 than in P388 after comparable drug exposure. In the six human tumor lines, a positive correlation was established between sensitivity to ara-AC (as determined by its median inhibitory concentration) and cellular content of deoxycytidine kinase. It is concluded that this latter enzyme is a generally important determinant of sensitivity to arabinosyl-5-azacytosine.