In 1994, we ascertained the outcome of 143 hypertensive men in whom invasive hemodynamic measurements were performed at rest and during graded bicycle exercise during the period 1972-1982 to assess (1) which of the hemodynamic components of blood pressure is associated with the incidence of cardiovascular events and total mortality, and (2) whether the hemodynamic response to dynamic exercise adds prognostic precision to the data at rest. During 2186 patient years of follow-up, 38 patients suffered at least one fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event and 17 patients died. Cox regression analysis showed that systolic pressure and systemic vascular resistance measured at rest, during submaximal exercise (50 W), and at peak effort were significant (P < .01) predictors of the age-adjusted incidence of cardiovascular events and total mortality. However, exercise blood pressure did not significantly predict the incidence of cardiovascular events over and above pressure at rest; by contrast, exercise systemic vascular resistance added prognostic precision to vascular resistance at rest (P < .01). As for total mortality, systolic pressure and systemic vascular resistance at peak exercise carried prognostic information that was independent of the results at rest (P < .05); this was not the case for measurements during submaximal exercise. We conclude that the prognostic importance of blood pressure is related to systemic vascular resistance. The prognostic precision of exercise pressure, on top of pressure at rest, is limited. Exercise systemic vascular resistance, however, provides prognostic information beyond that available from measurements at rest, particularly for the incidence of cardiovascular events.