Journal of Medicinal Chemistry vol:42 issue:9 pages:1604-1614
The synthesis, hydrolysis, and antiviral evaluation of novel, lipophilic cycloSal-ddAMP (9a-d) and cycloSal-d4AMP (10a-d) derivatives of the antiviral purine dideoxynucleoside analogues 2', 3'-dideoxyadenosine (ddA) (2) and 2',3'-dideoxy-2', 3'-didehydroadenosine (d4A) (3) are reported. These potential pronucleotides release ddAMP (7) or d4AMP (8) selectively by a controlled, chemically induced tandem reaction. All new compounds 9 and 10a-d were synthesized in good yields using our previously reported phosphorus(III) method starting from substituted salicyl alcohols 14a-h. The phosphotriesters 9 and 10 were obtained with a stereochemical preference of 2:1 with respect to the configuration at the phosphorus center. In an 1-octanol/water mixture phosphotriesters 9 and 10 exhibited 7-43-fold higher lipophilicity than the parent nucleosides ddA (2) and d4A (3) as judged by their log P values. In hydrolysis studies, 9 and 10 decomposed under mild aqueous basic conditions releasing solely ddAMP (7) and d4AMP (8), as well as the diols 14. Further hydrolysis studies under acidic conditions showed a marked increase in stability with respect to the acid-catalyzed cleavage of the glycosyl bond. Phosphotriesters 9 and 10 exhibited antiviral potencies against wild-type HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains in human T-lymphocyte (CEM/O) cells that were, respectively, 100- and 600-fold higher than those of ddA (2) and d4A (3). Furthermore, all triesters 9 and 10 were markedly more active than the corresponding ddI compounds 11 and 12, which supports the concept of the delivery of the adenine nucleotides. Studies with adenosine deaminase (ADA) and adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPDA) showed that the triesters were not substrates for enzymatic deamination. The studies reported herein demonstrate conclusively that the cycloSal triesters deliver exclusively the nucleotides ddAMP and d4AMP, not only under chemical-simulated hydrolysis but also under intracellular conditions fulfilling the adenosine deaminase bypass premise.