Conformational and quantitative structure-activity relationship study of cytotoxic 2-arylidenebenzocycloalkanones
Dimmock, J R × Kandepu, N M Nazarali, A J Kowalchuk, T P Motaganahalli, N Quail, J W Mykytiuk, P A Audette, G F Prasad, L Perjési, P Allen, T M Santos, C L Szydlowski, J De Clercq, Erik Balzarini, Jan #
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry vol:42 issue:8 pages:1358-66
Various 2-arylideneindanones 1, 2-arylidenetetralones 2, and 2-arylidenebenzosuberones 3 were synthesized with the aim of determining the relative orientations of the two aryl rings which favored cytotoxicity. Molecular modeling of the unsubstituted compound in each series revealed differences in the spatial arrangements of the two aryl rings, and evaluation of these compounds against P388, L1210, Molt 4/C8, and CEM cells as well as a panel of human tumor cell lines indicated that in general the order of cytotoxicity was 3 > 2 > 1. In particular 2-(4-methoxyphenylmethylene)-1-benzosuberone (3k) had the greatest cytotoxicity, possessing 11 times the potency of the reference drug melphalan when all five screens were considered. Series 3 was considered in further detail. First, excision of the aryl ring fused to the cycloheptanone moiety in series 3 led to some 2-arylidene-1-cycloheptanones 4 which had approximately one-third of the bioactivity of the analogues 3. Second, in some screens cytotoxicity was correlated negatively with the sigma values and positively with the MR constants of the substituents in the arylidene aryl ring of 3. Third, X-ray crystallography of five representative compounds (3i,k-n) revealed differences in the locations of the aryl rings which may have contributed to the variations in cytotoxicity. Finally three members of series 3 inhibited RNA and protein syntheses and induced apoptosis in human Jurkat T cells. This study has revealed that 2-arylidene-1-benzosuberones are a group of useful cytotoxic agents, and in particular 3k serves as a prototypic molecule for subsequent structural modifications.