Title: Extended Drawing
Other Titles: Looking For the In-Between
Authors: Schaeverbeke, Robin
Issue Date: 18-Aug-2016
Abstract: Traditional drawing pedagogy no longer matches contemporary architectural design practice – where drawing is appropriated in a myriad of ways – and the new generation of instructors and ‘digitally native’ learners. From this observation, the PhD project started to inquire a novel teaching and learning environment that allows progressing in a craft subject to change. To this end, I iteratively designed and implemented two workshops within the curricular confines of an architecture school, and inquired possible extensions of architectural drawing by transgressing its disciplinary boundaries in a personal learning experience in printmaking. In both cases I drew on the conceptual understanding and practice of (non-idiomatic) improvisation as a way of doing something that is intensified over time through reflection, affirmation, concentration, practice and performance. This resulted in three manuals and a series of ‘Extended Drawings’, which provide an account of the different steps that played on each and every action, and the degrees to which they can be recombined and transformed. Together, they demonstrate the value of extension as a method to progress in transformative fields of practice.
Table of Contents: Act 0: introduction
i acknowledgements
vii abstract
1 introduction
13 overview

Act I: Dear F.A.M.

3 1. All Stagnation is Baleful (a brief historic introduction)
9 2. Dear F.A.M./ Cher F.A.M.
12 A Rapidly Changing Practice
12 (i) The introduction and proliferation of computer technology as a tool to and for design
16 (ii) Digital photography and digital image editing
19 (iii) New media
22 (iv) Digital printing and publishing

23 A New Teaching Context
24 (i) A new generation of teachers and learners
27 (ii) A new ground for the drawing courses
28 (iii) A research-based teaching environment


Act II: Framework

5 PART I: The Concept of Extended Drawing

9 PART 2: Architectural Drawing
9 2.1. Drawing, Design, Architecture
14 2.2. Functions of Architectural Drawing
15 2.2.1 Recording
16 2.2.2 Exploration
18 2.2.3 Communication
20 2.2.4 Expression
21 2.3 Towards a Set of Objectives for the Architectural Drawing Courses
22 2.3.1 Drawing, Creativity and Design
23 2.3.2 Searching for the ‘in-between’
26 2.3.3. Inquiring Other Ways of Seeing to Re-evaluate Vantage Point Perspective
29 2.3.4 Visual Literacy
32 2.4 Conclusion

35 PART 3: Towards an Improvised Learning Structure
37 3.1 Improvisation and Learning
39 3.2 Towards a Concept of Improvisation
44 3.3 Improvisation, Experiential Learning and Acquisition
48 3.4 Games within Design

55 Part 4: How Does it Work
56 4.1 Structuring the Workshops
57 4.2. MWMWI
62 4.3. MWMWII
66 4.4. MWMWIII
68 4.5. How To Read the Manuals



3 PART I: Drawing Lines
6 1.1 Point & Line
7 1.2 Drawing Rudiments
8 1.3 Proportion
10 1.4 “So’Lewitt”; Sol Lewitt’s Legacy

12 PART 2: Solid Modelling
14 2.1. Creating the Solid Model
16 2.2. Drawing the Model
16 2.2.1 Orthographic Drawing
22 2.2.2 Digital Drawing
22 2.2.3 Plotting the Plan

26 PART 3: Parallel Perspctives
30 3.1 Oblique Drawings
30 3.2 Plan Oblique
30 3.3 Isometric Perspective
30 3.4 Up Views

34 PART 4: 3D ModellingI

38 INTERLUDE: Collaging a First Presentation
42 Toning and Texture Studies
44 Physical Toning
44 Digital Hatches
44 Collaged Tones

50 Part 5: Perspective Drawing I
52 5.1 One Point Perspective Introduction
54 5.2 Foreshortening
58 5.3 √2 Perspective
60 5.4 Point of View in Realtion to Foreshortening and Visual Effects
61 5.5 One Point, using the relative position of the observer (OC)
63 5.6 One Point 30º Method
64 5.7 Promenade Architecturale

70 PART 6: Folding the Model
72 6.1 Folding the Model (Physical Drawing)
76 6.2 Folding the Model (Digital Drawing)
80 6.3 Calculating Stairs
82 6.4 Building a New Model

86 PART 7: Perspective Drawing II
88 7.1. Two Point Variations
88 7.1.1 Analytical Observation
91 7.1.2 Points of Attention
94 7.1.3 Two Point Aerial
96 7.1.4 Two Point Eye-Level
98 7.1.5 Two Point Up Close
100 7.1.6 Two Point Interior
110 7.2. Three Point Principle

114 PART 8: 3D ModellingII

120 PART 9: Analysing Finalising
122 9.1 Analysing
122 9.2 Finalising
122 9.3 Expressive Excursions
123 9.4 Communicating

125 Part 10: Images - Examples



5 PART 1: Exploring Space/ Sensing Space
8 1.1 Drawing While Moving
8 1.2 Spatial Awareness
11 1.3 Visualising Sound
12 1.4 Thinking Inside the Box

15 PART 2: Mapping the Stone
17 2.1 Describing the Stone
17 2.2 Drawing Blind
17 2.3 Scaling the Stone
17 2.4 Wrapping the Stone
19 2.5 Concealing the Stone
19 2.6 Gesture/ Continuous Line
19 2.7 Inside the Stone
20 2.8 Assessing the work
20 2.9 Mapping the Stone

23 INTERLUDE 1: Telling a (Graphical) Story

31 PART 3: Introducing the Mountainscape
32 3.1 Topography
33 3.2 Introductory Observation: Crumbled Paper
34 3.3 Digital Modelling
34 3.3.1 Modelling the Landscape
36 3.3.2 Slicing the Mountainscape
36 3.3.3 Building a Physical model

39 INTERLUDE 2: To the Forest, Analysing Trees

43 PART 4: Mapping the Mountainscape
44 4.1 Digital Mapping Techniques
44 4.2 Drawn Topography Map
44 4.3 Shading
44 4.4 Crowding the Mountainscape
47 4.4.1 The River
47 4.4.2 The Forest
47 4.4.3 The Mythical Elements
48 4.4.4 The Walk
48 4.4.5 Graphical Elements
48 4.5 360º Panorama (Mountainscape Sections)
52 4.6 Landscape Isometry

55 PART 5: Exploring the Mountainscape
56 5.1 Telling the mountainscape’s Story
58 5.2 Framing Views: The Diorama
60 5.3 Sensory observations
60 5.4 Key Frames
60 5.5 Digital Renders
62 5.6 Preparing the Storyboard
65 5.7 Storyboard
66 5.8 Sculpting the Model

69 INTERLUDE 3: Editing the Images

79 PART 6: Shards and Sharks
81 6.1 The Shard
83 6.1.1 Design - Manipulation
85 6.1.2 Function - Siting
88 6.2 The Shark
88 6.2.1 Becoming Familiar with the Material: Moulding Clay
90 6.2.2 Function - Siting
90 6.3 Drawings
90 6.3.1 Orthographic Representations
91 6.3.2 Situational Drawings and Models
91 6.3.3 Approach

93 INTERLUDE 4: Finalising a Graphical Story

104 PART 7: Harmonising the Images
106 7.1 Manipulation 1: Greyscale - Xerox - Rasterising
107 7.2 Manipulation 2: Paper Effects - Overprinting
108 7.3 Manipulation 3: Duotones - Spot Colour - Transparencies
109 7.4 Manipulation 4: Basic Tracing
110 7.5 Manipulation 5: Photographing Drawings and Models
110 7.6 Manipulation 6: Image Editing
112 7.7 Manipulation 7: (Digital) Stamp
113 7.8 Manipulation 8: Transfer Techniques
114 7.9 Manipulation 9: (Digital) Collage
115 7.10 Manipulation 10: Colouring / Painting

119 PART 8: Preparing for Print

125 Part 9: Selected Publications



3 Introduction

7 PART I: Emergence From the Shadow
8 SeriesI
13 SeriesII

17 PART 2: Tracing Shadows, Finding New Forms
21 SeriesIII

41 PART 3: Tracing Lines
41 SeriesIV
48 SeriesV
53 SeriesVI
75 SeriesVII

79 PART 4: Adding Vanishing Points
81 SeriesVIII

103 Part 5: Composing a Theme
103 Series IX
106 Series X

111 Postscript



5 PART 1: Evaluating Learning Activities

11 2.1. Cognitive Activities
11 2.1.1. Drawing, Creativity and Design
13 2.1.2. Searching for the ´in-between’
17 2.1.3. Inquiring Other Ways of Seeing to Re-Evaluate Vantage Point Perspective
17 2.1.4. Visual Literacy
19 2.2. Affective Activities
23 2.3. Metacognitive Activities
27 2.4. Conclusion
35 Postscript MWMWI

39 Part 3: MWMWII
41 3.1. Cognitive Activities
41 3.1.1. Drawing, Creativity and Design
43 3.1.2. Searching for the ´in-between’
43 3.1.3. Inquiring Other Ways of Seeing to Re-Evaluate Vantage Point Perspective
45 3.1.4. Visual Literacy
47 3.2. Affective Activities
51 3.3. Metacognitive Activities
53 3.4. Conclusion
61 MWMWI&II, Postscript, Reflection

65 Part 4. MWMWIII
65 4.1. Cognitive Activities
67 4.2. Affective Activities
69 4.3. Metacognitive Activities
73 4.4. Conclusion


Act VII: dear faculty dean

1 Dear Faculty Dean

ISBN: 9789082510812
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: TH
Appears in Collections:Department of Architecture - miscellaneous
Architecture and Design (+)
Architecture, Campuses Sint-Lucas Brussels and Ghent

Files in This Item:
File Description Status SizeFormat
Act7_DearFDean_screen.pdfAs a conclusion I wrote an open letter to a future faculty dean. Within the letter I circumscribe the primary findings of the study, what it has taught, and how an architecture faculty and a wider research community can act upon them and/or learn from them. The letter looks back on some of the important aspects of the study, and formulates some points of attention, recommendations and future possibilities for learning and research. Published 78KbAdobe PDFView/Open
Act6_evaluation_screen.pdfAct VI evaluates the workshops around a set of learning activities as provided by learning sciences coupled with notions and implications of improvised learning strategies and pedagogy. The evaluation assesses the practice and experience of teaching and learning as a conclusion of the design experiments, the workshops, and uses the drawn output, the experience of teaching and learning as its research material. Informal talks and discussions with colleagues, peers and learners also provided critical reflections to assess the activities. The chapter centres around three learning activities: cognitive, affective and metacognitive. Each workshop is evaluated separately. Published 4218KbAdobe PDFView/Open
Act5_MWMWIII_screen.pdfMWMWIII explores the extending of architectural drawing as an improvised activity. In MWMWIII the instructor became a learner, the learner a researcher. MWMWIII explores the concept of Extended Drawing beyond its disciplinary confines, which resulted in a series of drawings and prints: the Extended Drawing series. Act V is is an account of a series of improvisations with techniques and technicalities, materials and constructions to extend the drawing, to find new forms and spaces. The chapter introduces Extended Drawing as an iterative set of activities which revolve around drawing, tracing, transferring, manipulating, reflection and transcription. MWMWIII revealed important notions of improvised learning and imaging in action directed at change. The Extended Drawings informed the research about ways of drawing and reproduction that facilitate emergence and reinterpretation. Published 7584KbAdobe PDFView/Open
Act4_MWMWII_screen.pdfMWMWII takes off where MWMWI left and digs deeper into complementary states, modes and aspects of drawing. MWMWII changes focus from convention to experience. By doing so MWMWII investigates the consequences of the argument that conventionalised drawing, in a certain sense, fails to express the multivariate and experiential character of spatial experiences and what this implies for the architectural drawing courses. MWMWII explores the drawing and imagining of non-visual aspects of drawing and introduces non-Euclidean forms and spaces to complement and even question the basics introduced in MWMWI. The workshop centres around ways to make a virtual landscape experiential through touching, storytelling, listening, imagining, manipulating,..., drawing and inventing. MWMWII opens up areas of drawing for the learner to discover architectural drawing from a personal point of view. Drawing as a way to inform about form, space, experience and the senses in order to find something new. Similar as MWMWI, MWMWII is written as a projection of an anticipated teaching and learning experience, as a proposal rather than as a description. Published 8215KbAdobe PDFView/Open
Act3_MWMWI_screen.pdfMWMW1 is conceived as an introductory workshop for entry level learners. Its account is written and designed as an illustrated manual. The manual is based upon the experience and transcriptions of the entry-level course but surpasses the transcriptions in the sense that the manual describes MWMWI as an intention, as a design. Based on the study and experience of the implementation the manual explores tools for a next implementation. For the experienced reader/ draughtsman the chapter will offer few novelties. The innovation of MWMWI lies in the complementary, blended, exploration of physical and digital activities and its game-like structure. The game’s constraints introduce a hint of discovery and facilitate an overflow between digital and physical activities. MWMWI introduces basic notions of architectural drawing: projection, parallel perspective, vantage point perspective and basic visual literacy studied by developing an affective architectural artefact. The manual is directed at novices in architectural design, to introduce them into the basic concepts of architectural drawing. Published 8789KbAdobe PDFView/Open
Act2_framework_screen.pdfAct II introduces the building blocks and concepts which informed this study. Act II starts by introducing the concept of Extended Drawing to move on to outline the teaching environment and the nature of the learners and the instructors involved in the study. After establishing the teaching/learning context the chapter explores the roles and functions of architectural drawing in architectural practice and its design processes. The description of the teaching/ learning context combined with the roles and functions of architectural drawing inspired a set of learning objectives which defined the development and content of the workshops. As the research draws a conceptual link between architectural drawing’s performative, inventive properties and the concept of improvisation. Act II also explores some implications to use improvisation as a state of mind for teaching/learning. Improvisation is introduced as a frame of mind for both learners and instructors directed at change and self invention. Research by design lead to designing a set of generative constraints, game-like structures which were implemented as design experiments in educational settings. The chapter concludes with an overview of the main content and ambitions of the workshops and how to read them. Published 1562KbAdobe PDFView/Open
Act1_DearFAM_screen.pdfDear F.A.M. contextualises the faculty wherein the project was implemented and elaborates upon its tradition and the actual teaching environment which gave rise to this study. Act I was written as a letter to one of the faculty’s founding fathers, the illustrious Friar Alfred Maurice (F.A.M.). F.A.M. passed away in 1959 and left us with two drawing manuals, one of which, up until the research commenced, was still being used as a reference for the teaching of (physical) drawing courses. The letter sketches some of the powers that have been changing the architectural practice and education these past 50 or so years and provides a cross section of some of the parameters which urged us, drawing instructors, to start reflecting upon the status and value of drawing in architectural practice and education: the introduction and proliferation of computer technology as a tool to and for design; digital photography and image editing as a tool for recording and referencing; the invention of the world wide web as place to share, communicate and store information; digital printing and publishing and, finally the academisation of architectural education. The letter provides a structure to describe the challenges facing contemporary architectural drawing and learning practices written to someone who has not lived to experience the changes and the challenges facing a new generation of learners and instructors. Published 179KbAdobe PDFView/Open
Act0_introduction_screen.pdfAct 1 introduces the main themes of the project: i.acknowledgements | vii.abstract | xi.TABLE OF CONTENTS | 1.introduction | 13.overview | 19.BIBLIOGRAPHY Published 209KbAdobe PDFView/Open


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