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Title: Conservation-Induced Displacement: Building New Bridges in Social Relations
Authors: Awuh, Harrison
Issue Date: 28-Oct-2016
Abstract: Purpose: This study utilises a case study approach among the displaced Baka communities of East Cameroon to deepen current understandings of social impact of conservation-induced displacement and to foster collaboration between host communities and sedentarized victims of conservation-induced displacement as an approach for diminishing social impact. Using a critical epistemological perspective, and departing from a critique of the sustainable livelihood approach with its focus on assets and capitals. The study seeks to reveal the extent to which the processes of dominance and subordination affect institutions of marginalization and exclusion which in turn, affect livelihood outcomes for victims of conservation-induced displacement. To inform this evaluation, this study’s theoretical framework was rooted in Paulo Freire's (1970; 2000) dialogical and anti-dialogical theories of dominance and action. This study explores the theoretical and practical dimensions of Freire’s theories as a means of harnessing the power of dialogue in inverting dominant discourse which subjects certain groups in a population to marginalization and exclusion following displacement and sedentarization.
Research Methods: Mixed methods case study. Data on the discourse of dominance and subordination were collected through semi-structured and structured interviews with Baka participants, representatives of the government and non-governmental organisations, and the host Bantu community members. Findings were deductively analyzed using tenets of Freire's (1970) anti-dialogical theory. The course of action on dominant discourse inversion was also executed by participatory methods of photovoice and community football under the guidance of Freire’s dialogical theory of action.
Findings: The findings suggest that although conservation-induced displacement has led to negative social impacts on the displaced and resettled, building social relations between the displaced and host communities is a first step in tackling processes and institutions of marginalization and exclusion which exacerbate impoverishment among displaced and resettled groups. This outcome vindicates nature conservancy as the sole culprit responsible for negative livelihood outcomes of people living in and around protected areas.
Table of Contents: Table of Contents
Abstract (English).................................................................................................................................... 3
Abstract (Nederlands) .............................................................................................................................. 4
Abbreviations and Acronyms .................................................................................................................. 9
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction .............................................................................................................. 12
1.1: Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 12
1.2: Definition of key terms .............................................................................................................. 12
1.3: Rationale for this research .......................................................................................................... 14
1.3.1: Overview of impact of CIDR in literature ........................................................................... 14
1.3.2: Gaps in literature in relation to marginalisation .................................................................. 16
1.4: Introduction to research approach building on research gaps in literature ................................. 19
1.5: The Baka, displacement and resettlement in the Dja reserve area ............................................. 21
1.6: Thesis layout .............................................................................................................................. 23
1.7: Significance of this study ........................................................................................................... 25
PART ONE .......................................................................................................................................... 27
SETTING THE SCENE ..................................................................................................................... 27
CHAPTER TWO: Theoretical Framework ........................................................................................... 28
2.1: SLA ............................................................................................................................................ 28
2.2: Discourse .................................................................................................................................... 35
2.2.1: First arrival .......................................................................................................................... 35
2.2.2 Freire’s anti-dialogical and dialogical theories .................................................................... 37
2.3: Statement of research questions ................................................................................................. 51
2.4: Conclusion .................................................................................................................................. 52
CHAPTER THREE: Methodology ....................................................................................................... 54
3.1: Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 54
3.2: Epistemology .............................................................................................................................. 54
3.3: Positionality ................................................................................................................................ 56
3.4: Selection of case study sites ....................................................................................................... 58
3.5: Sampling..................................................................................................................................... 60
3.6: Ethical considerations ................................................................................................................ 61
3.7: Methods ...................................................................................................................................... 61
3.7.1: First Fieldwork – July to September 2012 .......................................................................... 63
3.7.2: Second Fieldwork – April – June 2013 ............................................................................... 66
3.7.3: Third Fieldwork – April – June 2014 .................................................................................. 66
3.8: Participatory observation and field notes ................................................................................... 67
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3.9: Credibility................................................................................................................................... 68
3.10: Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 70
CHAPTER FOUR: The Context ........................................................................................................... 72
4.1: Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 72
4.2: Rationale for choice of the study area ........................................................................................ 72
4.3: The environment ........................................................................................................................ 75
4.3.1: Physical environment .......................................................................................................... 75
4.3.2: The human environment ...................................................................................................... 77
4.3.3: Economic activities ............................................................................................................. 89
4.3.4: Legal framework ................................................................................................................. 92
4.4: Conclusion .................................................................................................................................. 95
PART TWO ......................................................................................................................................... 97
ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................................................... 97
CHAPTER FIVE: Access to discourse, marginalisation and exclusion................................................ 98
5.1: Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 98
5.2: Anti-dialogical theory ................................................................................................................ 98
5.3: Study background ..................................................................................................................... 100
5.4: Methods .................................................................................................................................... 101
5.5: Findings .................................................................................................................................... 102
5.5.1: Government discourse at national level ............................................................................ 102
5.5.2: Mass media discourse ........................................................................................................ 104
5.5.3: Local bureaucratic practice discourse ............................................................................... 107
5.5.4: Scholarly discourse............................................................................................................ 111
5.5.5: Corporate discourse ........................................................................................................... 112
5.6: Discussion ................................................................................................................................ 115
5.7: Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 115
5.8: Acknowledgements .................................................................................................................. 116
CHAPTER SIX: Adaptive livelihood strategies in conservation-induced displacement .................... 118
6.1: Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 118
6.2: Cultural invasion in the anti-dialogical theory of dominance .................................................. 118
6.3: Material and methods ............................................................................................................... 119
6.4: Results: Adaptive strategies ..................................................................................................... 123
6.4.1: Illegal hunting with guns ................................................................................................... 123
6.4.2: Alcohol consumption ........................................................................................................ 128
6.4.3: Agriculture ........................................................................................................................ 130
6.4.4: Clinical medicine ............................................................................................................... 131
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6.5: Discussion ................................................................................................................................ 133
6.6: Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 136
6.7: Acknowledgments .................................................................................................................... 138
PART THREE ................................................................................................................................... 139
ACTION ............................................................................................................................................. 139
CHAPTER SEVEN: The role of photovoice in the inversion of discourse: Conservation-induced
displacement ........................................................................................................................................ 140
7.1: Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 140
7.2: Background .............................................................................................................................. 141
7.3: Materials and method ............................................................................................................... 142
7.3.1: Study design ...................................................................................................................... 142
7.3.2: Recruitment of participants ............................................................................................... 142
7.3.3: Taking of photographs....................................................................................................... 143
7.3.4: Discussing the photographs ............................................................................................... 143
7.4: Results of the photovoice exercise ........................................................................................... 144
7.4.1: Poor housing conditions .................................................................................................... 145
7.4.2: Inadequate care for children and elderly people ................................................................ 149
7.4.3: Malnutrition ....................................................................................................................... 152
7.4.4: Poor sanitary conditions .................................................................................................... 154
7.4.5: Insufficient income generating activities........................................................................... 158
7.4.6: Alcohol abuse .................................................................................................................... 159
7.4.7: Lack of interest in formal education .................................................................................. 162
7.4.8: Loss of culture and medicinal knowledge ......................................................................... 163
7.4.9: Burden of domestic responsibilities on women ................................................................. 164
7.4.10: The lack of potable water ................................................................................................ 166
7.4.11: Juvenile delinquency ....................................................................................................... 167
7.4.12: Low life expectancy ........................................................................................................ 168
7.4.13: Deforestation and climate change ................................................................................... 168
7.5: Discussion ................................................................................................................................ 170
7.5.1: Self-awareness or self-blame? ........................................................................................... 170
7.5.2: Self-awareness as a first step in the process of change ..................................................... 172
7.5.3: Limitations of Photovoice ................................................................................................. 175
7.5.4: Diversity of perceptions on livelihood challenges and remedies ...................................... 176
7.5.5: Frequency of basic need themes ........................................................................................ 177
7.6: Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 177
7.7: Acknowledgements .................................................................................................................. 178
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CHAPTER EIGHT: Football for solidarity: Bridging gaps in the relationship between the Baka and
the Bantu ............................................................................................................................................. 180
8.1: Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 180
8.2: Setting the scene ....................................................................................................................... 183
8.3: Methods .................................................................................................................................... 186
8.4: Findings .................................................................................................................................... 189
8.5: Discussion ................................................................................................................................ 194
8.6: Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 198
8.7: Acknowledgements .................................................................................................................. 199
CHAPTER NINE: Conclusion ............................................................................................................ 200
9.1: Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 200
9.2: Revisiting the hypotheses and research questions .................................................................... 200
9.3: Revisiting the theoretical framework and lessons for conservation studies ............................. 206
9.4: Policy recommendations .......................................................................................................... 209
9.4.1: Representation of the oppressed in sedentary society ....................................................... 209
9.4.2: Enforcement of law and declarations ................................................................................ 210
7.4.3: Impact assessment or prediction ........................................................................................ 215
9.4.4: More broad-based intergroup community building interventions ..................................... 216
9.5: Recommendations for further research .................................................................................... 217
9.6: Closing argument ..................................................................................................................... 219
REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................... 221
APPENDIX 1: The articles of ILO Convention 169 which are directly relevant to CIDR ................. 251
APPENDIX 2: Sample questions used in the questionnaires .............................................................. 252
APPENDIX 3: Overlap of biodiversity and cultural diversity ............................................................ 254
APPENDIX 4: List of NGOs which operate (or used to operate) in the study area ............................ 255
APPENDIX 5: Authorisation to organize a public event .................................................................... 256
Publication status: accepted
KU Leuven publication type: TH
Appears in Collections:Division of Geography & Tourism

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