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Title: Peace-Building in Northern Ghana: Religion as Indispensable Component of a Multi-Dimensional Approach​
Other Titles: Interreligieus vredesonderwijs voor ontwikkeling in Noord-Ghana: de jeugd als actor
Authors: Nonterah, Nora Kofognotera
Issue Date: 17-Nov-2016
Table of Contents: TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgements......................................................................................................... i Table of Contents ...........................................................................................................v Bibliography ..................................................................................................................xi Abbreviations ..........................................................................................................xxxix
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1. Statement of the Problem............................................................................................1 2. The Research Hypothesis and Questions.....................................................................2 3. Motivations.................................................................................................................3 4. Aim and Scope............................................................................................................4 5. Methodology...............................................................................................................4 6. Structure .....................................................................................................................6 7. Relevance of the Study ...............................................................................................8 8. Explaining Some Useful Terms ..................................................................................9
PART I
UNDERSTANDING CONFLICTS AND PEACE-BUILDING: THE PRECARIOUS SITUATION OF PEACE IN NORTHERN GHANA
CHAPTER ONE
THE PRECARIOUS SITUATION OF PEACE IN NORTHERN GHANA: UNDERSTANDING THE CONFLICTS
Introduction ........................................................................................................13 1.1 Northern Ghana and Conflicts: A Volatile Home...................................................13 1.1.1 Inter-Ethnic conflicts in Northern Ghana................................................................. 15 1.1.1.1 An Example: Description of the Bawku Conflict .............................................. 16 1.1.1.2 The Causes of Inter-Ethnic Conflicts................................................................. 20 1.1.2 Intra-Ethnic Conflicts............................................................................................... 23 1.1.2.1 An Example: TheYendi (Dagbon) Crisis........................................................... 24 1.1.2.2 The Causes of Intra-Ethnic Conflicts................................................................. 27 1.1.3 Religious Conflicts................................................................................................... 28
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1.1.3.1 An Example: Religious Tensions in Tamale ..................................................... 29
1.1.3.2 The Causes of Religious Conflicts..................................................................... 30 1.2 The Dynamics that Underlies Conflicts in Northern Ghana ....................................31 1.2.1 Factors that Shape the Standpoint of People in Northern Ghana............................. 31 1.2.1.1 Ethnicity and the Ethnic Divide......................................................................... 32 1.2.1.2 The Influence of Religion .................................................................................. 34 1.2.1.3 The Influence of Politics.................................................................................... 36 1.2.2 The Actors in Conflict Situations in Northern Ghana.............................................. 39 1.2.3 The Nature of Conflicts: Confrontationally Destructive.......................................... 40
1.3 Earlier Efforts at the Restoration of Peace in the Conflict-Prone
Northern Ghana ............................................................................................................42 Conclusion....................................................................................................................45
CHAPTER TWO
THE NOTION OF PEACE AND PEACE-BUILDING: THE VALUE OF THE PERSON AS AN ENTRANCE TO ETHICAL RETHINKING OF
PEACE-BUILDING
Introduction ..................................................................................................................49 2.1 Religious and Cultural Conceptions of Peace..........................................................50 2.1.1 The Christian Understanding of Peace..................................................................... 51 2.1.1.1 Peace in the Old Testament: Shalom ................................................................. 51 2.1.1.2 Peace in the New Testament: Eirene ................................................................. 53
2.1.1.3 Some Significant Tensions in the Understanding of Peace in
Christian History............................................................................................................ 55 2.1.2 The Islamic Conception of Peace............................................................................. 57 2.1.3 An Indigenous (Multicultural) Conception of Peace: General Views
from an African Perspective.............................................................................................. 60
2.1.3.1 General Views from Africa................................................................................ 60 2.1.3.2 The Influence of African Traditional Religion (ATR) in the
Northern Ghanaian Situation ......................................................................................... 64
2.2 A Deeper Understanding of Peace: The Identity of the Human Person ...................65 2.2.1 Personalism .............................................................................................................. 65 2.2.1.1 Leuven Personalism ........................................................................................... 66 2.2.1.2 What Personalism Means for Peace and Peace-Building .................................. 69
2.2.2 The Importance of Personalism for the Peace-Building Process: In
Table of Contents
Dialogue with Lederach .................................................................................................... 73 2.3 Justice for Peace-Building: The Importance of Restorative Justice in
Northern Ghana as a Focus ...........................................................................................75 2.4. The Peace-Building Process as Grassroots Friendly...............................................81
2.4.1 The Focus on all Components of Society ............................................................. 84 2.4.2 Addressing Both Immediate and Remote Issues Concerning Conflict .................... 84 2.4.3 All People at the Local Level Matter in the Peace-building Process ....................... 85
2.4.3.1 Youth Are Particularly Important for the Northern Ghana Peace
Process ........................................................................................................................... 85 2.4.3.2 The Place of Women in the Peace-Building Process in
Northern Ghana.............................................................................................................. 87
Conclusion....................................................................................................................89
PART II
ATTEMPTS AT RESTORING PEACE IN NORTHERN GHANA: A MULTIDIMENSIONAL APPROACH TO PEACE-BUILDING – RELIGIOUS, ETHNIC, SOCIOECONOMIC, AND POLITICAL ASPECTS
CHAPTER THREE
THE CONTRIBUTION OF RELIGION TO THE PEACE-BUILDING PROCESS IN NORTHERN GHANA
Introduction ..................................................................................................................97 3.1 The Contribution of Religion to Peace-Building.....................................................98 3.1.1 The Importance of Religious Peace-Building .......................................................... 98 3.1.2 Pragmatic Religious Involvement .......................................................................... 100 3.2. Inter-Faith Relations, Dialogue, and Peace ..........................................................106 3.2.1. Ecumenism in Ghana ............................................................................................ 107 3.2.2 Interreligious Relations .......................................................................................... 108 3.2.3 The (Im)Possibility of Interreligious Dialogue ...................................................... 113 3.2.3.1 Exclusivism...................................................................................................... 114 3.2.3.2 A Journey Beyond Exclusivism: Inclusivism .................................................. 115 3.2.3.3 Beyond Exclusivism and Inclusivism in Northern Ghana: Pluralism ............. 116 3.2.3.4 Beyond Exclusivism, Inclusivism, and Pluralism: Moving Forward .............. 117
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3.3 Religious Education in Ghana: Implications for Peace-Building in
Northern Ghana ..........................................................................................................122
3.3.1 The (Lack of) Attentiveness to Religious Plurality in Religious Education in
Ghana ............................................................................................................................. 122
3.3.1.1 The Mono-Religious Model of Religious Education: A Challenge
in Multi-Religious Ghana ............................................................................................ 123 3.3.1.2 The Multi-Religious Model of Religious Education: A Challenge
in the Multi-Religious Ghana ...................................................................................... 124
3.3.2 Interreligious Learning: A Proposed Alternative Model of Religious
Education in Ghana ......................................................................................................... 127
3.3.2.1 The Central Methodological Approach to Religious and Peace
Education in Ghana...................................................................................................... 129 3.3.2.2 The Usefulness of Interreligious Learning in Ghana....................................... 131 3.3.2.3 The Religious Educator ................................................................................... 135
3.3.3 Informal Approach to Interreligious Learning ....................................................... 136 Conclusion..................................................................................................................137
CHAPTER FOUR
THE CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF ETHNICITY IN PEACE- BUILDING IN THE MULTI-ETHNIC NORTHERN GHANA: AN ETHICAL
PERSPECTIVE
Introduction ................................................................................................................ 139 4.1 Where Ethnicity is a Problem ...............................................................................140 4.1.1 Ethnicity in Northern Ghana: The Structure .......................................................... 141 4.1.2 The Ethical Issues on the Ground: The Practicalities ............................................ 142 4.2 Issues: Dismantling the Destructive Structures and Elements ...............................143
4.2.1 An Impeccably Edgy Proposal: Lederach’s Idea of the Web of
Relationships to Include the Enemy................................................................................ 144 4.2.2 Our Being One: A Theology of Fraternal Love for Peace ..................................... 146 4.2.3 Turning Solidarity into a Positive Mechanism for Harmony in Society................ 149
4.3 A Personalist and Dialogical Ubuntu: An Imminent Utopia? ................................ 151 4.4 Ethnic Dialogues: Intra and Inter-Ethnic Dialogue ...............................................156 4.4.1 Why Dialogue?....................................................................................................... 157 4.4.2 Openness: The Challenge and Prerequisite of Dialogue........................................ 157 4.4.3 The Role of Mediators: NGOs and Other Peace Groups and Facilitators ............. 159
Table of Contents
4.5 Back to Our Roots: The Place of Traditional Methods and Values........................161 4.6 Cultural Values: When and Where to Be Learned.................................................163 4.6.1 At Home ................................................................................................................. 163 4.6.2 At School: Education ............................................................................................. 164 Conclusion..................................................................................................................164
CHAPTER FIVE
SOCIOECONOMIC AND POLITICAL ASPECTS OF NORTHERN GHANA: THEIR IMPACT ON PEACE-BUILDING
Introduction ................................................................................................................ 167 5.1. Understanding the Socioeconomic Situation of Northern Ghana..........................168 5.1.1 Understanding Poverty........................................................................................... 170 5.1.2 Poverty in Northern Ghana .................................................................................... 172 5.2 Poverty, Peace, and Development: The Complex Relation....................................173 5.3 Existing Intervention Efforts.................................................................................177 5.4. The Development of Northern Ghana: The Way Forward .................................... 180 5.4.1 The Role of Government........................................................................................ 183 5.4.1.1 Youth Empowerment ....................................................................................... 184 5.4.1.2 Women Empowerment .................................................................................... 186 5.4.2 Development that Meets the Needs of the Community ......................................... 186 5.5 Poverty Reduction and the De-Politicisation of Conflict.......................................187 Conclusion..................................................................................................................189
GENERAL CONCLUSION
Introduction ................................................................................................................ 191 1 Research Findings and Relevance: Northern Ghana.................................................191 1.1 Approaches to Peace-Building .................................................................................. 191
1.2 Our Modest Ethical Views as a Contribution to Some of the Challenges:
Proposals ......................................................................................................................... 193 1.2.1 The Challenges ................................................................................................... 193 1.2.2 Ethical Views on Peace and Peace-Building ...................................................... 194 1.2.2.1 The Religious Contribution........................................................................... 197 1.2.2.2 Ethnicity and Relations in Northern Ghana .................................................. 200 1.2.2.3 Socioeconomic and Political Perspectives.................................................... 202 2 Summary .................................................................................................................203
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3 Limitations and Themes for Further Research .........................................................206
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: TH
Appears in Collections:Research Unit of Pastoral and Empirical Theology
Research Unit of Theological and Comparative Ethics

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