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Title: Paul’s Teaching on the πνευματικά in 1 Corinthians 12-14. Prophecy as the Paradigm of τὰ χαρίσματα τὰ μείζονα for the Future-Oriented ἐκκλησία
Other Titles: Paulus’ onderricht omtrent de πνευματικά in 1 Korintiërs 12-14: Profetie als het paradigma van τὰ χαρίσματα τὰ μείζονα voor de toekomstgerichte ἐκκλησία
Authors: Li, Soeng Yu
Issue Date: 18-Oct-2016
Abstract: Summary:
In 1 Corinthians 12-14 Paul presents prophecy as one of the χαρίσματα. However, not much attention has been given to this aspect of prophecy. Therefore, this study aims to understand prophecy as a χάρισμα in 1 Corinthians 12-14.
This study consists of four parts. Part I focuses on the occurrences of the verbal noun χάρισμα within non-Pauline literature (Chapter 1) and the New Testament, excepting 1 Corinthians 12-14 (Chapter 2). Based on a contextual analysis of χάρισμα, this study demonstrates that a distinction between a technical (“spiritual gift”) and general meaning (“gift”) is neither present in the non-Pauline literature nor in the New Testament. In the New Testament, χάρισμα is a graciously given gift by God or the Spirit to those who have responded affirmatively to God’s call to be part of the κοινωνία of his Son. This χάρισμα can be personal or communal. A communal χάρισμα is a gift (Gabe) that entails the task (Aufgabe) to build up the ἐκκλησία towards its promised eschatological future, whereas a personal χάρισμα (e.g., eternal life, Rom 5:15-16, 6:23) does not imply this.
Part II explores the semantic relationship between πνευματικά and χαρίσματα. Chapter 3 argues that the genitive plural πνευματικῶν is not a masculine (“spiritual persons”) but a neuter form (“spiritual things”). Chapter 4 discusses four scholarly understandings of this relationship, namely πνευματικά and χαρίσματα are synonyms, χάρισμα is the hypernym of πνευματικά, πνευματικός is the hypernym of χαρίσματα, and χαρίσματα is a meronym of πνευματικά. Meronymy is only present in an embryonic way and is the most fruitful one to understand the semantic relationship between πνευματικά and χαρίσματα.
In Part III we offer an exegesis of 1 Corinthians 12, 13 and 14 from a meronymic point of view in Chapters 5, 6 and 7 respectively, followed by a synthesis in Chapter 8. This study understands 1 Corinthians 12-14 to be a coherent teaching on the πνευματικά. The term πνευματικά is understood as a holonym which consists of different meronyms that are dealt with in the three chapters. The πνευματικά are the “things that characterize the life of the πνευματικοί”. This means that the πνευματικοί need to behave in a way that reflects the gospel of Christ. All πνευματικοί must practice the Spirit-given χαρίσματα as is characteristic for ἀγάπη in order to carry out the διακονίαι that have been assigned to them by God. Only in this way the χαρίσματα will lead to διακονίαι in imitatione Christi that contribute to the οἰκοδομή of the future-oriented ἐκκλησία by realizing in part the promised future in the here and now.
The χάρισμα of prophecy is studied in Part IV where prophecy in 1 Corinthians 12-13 and 14 are discussed in Chapters 9 and 10 respectively. Paul regards prophecy as a communal activity, in which all members of the ἐκκλησία can participate in formulating a communal vision which guides them to the promised eschatological future. This χάρισμα not only builds up the members but it also invites outsiders to become part of the κοινωνία of Christ.

Annexed theses:
(1) The semantic relationship between χαρίσματα and πνευματικά is meronymy. χαρίσματα are one of the many parts (meronyms) of the whole (holonym) that is called πνευματικά. This implies that 1 Corinthians 12-14 needs to be read as a coherent whole.
(2) 1 Corinthians 12-14 is a coherent teaching on πνευματικά, i.e., the things that characterize the life of the πνευματικοί while they are presently waiting for the parousia of Christ. The life of the πνευματικοί must reflect the gospel of Christ, they need to walk in the Spirit and cultivate ἀγάπη during their journey towards the promised eschatological future.
(3) For Paul prophecy is a communal χάρισμα and the paradigm of τὰ χαρίσματα τὰ μείζονα for the future-oriented ἐκκλησία. Prophecy invites insiders to contribute to the formulation and to the partial realization of its communal vision. It also invites outsiders to become part of the ἐκκλησία. All χαρίσματα must be practiced as is characteristic for ἀγάπη, only then the πνευματικοί contribute to the οἰκοδομή of the ἐκκλησία by partially realizing the promised eschatological future in the future-oriented present.
(4) Ecclesiological understanding of the ἐκκλησία as an inclusive and open community where all indispensable and mutual interdependent members can contribute to its eschatological οἰκοδομή according to their apportioned χαρίσματα and διακονίαι.
(5) All members of the future-oriented and inclusive community can contribute under the guidance of the Spirit to the formulation of the communal vision which happens by trial and error. Sound criticism is necessary to evaluate an inspired vision in light of the gospel. Thus, divine inspired vision is not equal to the divine will or word.
Table of Contents: FOREWORD III
TABLE OF CONTENTS V
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS XI
LIST OF FIGURES XIX
BIBLIOGRAPHY XXI
INTRODUCTION XXI
1. PRIMARY LITERATURE XXII
1.1. Text Editions xxii
1.2. Tools xxiii
2. SECONDARY LITERATURE XXVI
2.1. Commentaries on 1 Corinthians xxvi
2.2. Commentaries on Other Biblical Books xxviii
2.3. Studies xxix
GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1
PART I: THE VERBAL NOUN χάρισμα IN NON-PAULINE LITERATURE AND THE NEW TESTAMENT 9
CHAPTER 1: THE VERBAL NOUN χάρισμα IN NON-PAULINE LITERATURE 11
INTRODUCTION 11
1. THE VERBAL NOUN χάρισμα 11
2. THE VERBAL NOUN χάρισμα IN NON-PAULINE LITERATURE 15
2.1. The Verbal Noun χάρισμα within Biblical Tradition but Non-Pauline Texts 15
2.1.1. Sir 7:33 and 38:30 15
2.1.2. Philo: Leg. All. 3,78 19
2.1.3. Theodotion: Ps 30:22 28
2.2. The Verbal Noun χάρισμα within Non-Biblical Texts 38
2.2.1. Sibylline Oracles 2,54 38
2.2.2. Alciphron Ep III,17,4 41
2.2.3. Greek papyri 41
CONCLUSION 42
CHAPTER 2:THE VERBAL NOUN χάρισμα IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 45
INTRODUCTION 45
1. TECHNICAL OR GENERAL MEANING OF χάρισμα 45
2. THE REFERENT OF χάρισμα IN 1 COR 1:7 46
2.1. Scholarly Understanding of the Meaning of χάρισμα in 1 Cor 1:7 47
2.2. Introductory Epistolary Function 50
2.3. Thanksgiving Period as Transition to the Body of the Letter 53
2.4. The Thanksgiving Period as the Hermeneutical Frame of the Letter 55
2.5. Interpretation of χάρισμα in Light of a Christocentric Hermeneutical Frame 57
2.6. Synthesis 62
3. THE REFERENT OF χάρισμα IN1 COR 7:7 63
3.1. Not a General Rule 63
3.2. Scholarly Understanding of χάρισμα in 1 Cor 7:7 64
3.3. Re-Reading 1 Corinthians 7 67
3.3.1. Anaphoric or Cataphoric Function of τοῦτο in 1 Cor 7:6? 68
3.3.2. Paul’s Anxious Advice in 1 Corinthians 7 71
4. THE REFERENT OF χάρισμα IN 2 COR 1:11 76
5. THE REFERENT OF χάρισμα IN ROM 1:11 77
6. THE REFERENT OF χάρισμα IN ROM 5:15-16 78
7. THE REFERENT OF χάρισμα IN ROM 6:23 79
8. THE REFERENT OF χάρισμα IN ROM 11:29 80
9. THE REFERENT OF χάρισμα IN ROM 12:6 81
10. THE REFERENT OF χάρισμα IN 1 TIM 4:14 AND 2 TIM 1:6 82
11. THE REFERENT OF χάρισμα IN 1 PET 4:10 83
CONCLUSION 84
PART II: THE GENDER OF πνευματικῶν AND ITS SEMANTIC RELATIONSHIP WITH χαρίσματα 87
CHAPTER 3: CONCERNING THE GENDER OF πνευματικῶν (1 COR 12:1) 89
INTRODUCTION 89
1. GRAMMATICAL GENDER OF πνευματικῶν IN 1 COR 12:1 89
2. THE USAGE OF πνευματικός IN GREEK LITERATURE AND IN THE CORPUS PAULINUM 89
3. MASCULINE GENDER: πνευματικοί AS “SPIRITUAL PERSONS” 92
4. NEUTER GENDER: πνευματικά AS “SPIRITUAL GIFTS” 97
CONCLUSION 98
CHAPTER 4: THE SEMANTIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN πνευματικά AND χαρίσματα 99
INTRODUCTION 99
1. SYNONYMY 99
1.1. πνευματικά and χαρίσματα as Synonyms 100
1.1.1. James D.G. Dunn 101
1.1.2. Siegfried S. Schatzmann 104
1.1.3. D.A. Carson 107
1.1.4. Synthesis: Synonymy 111
2. HYPONOMY 113
2.1. Hyponomy I: χαρίσματα as the Hypernym of πνευματικά 114
2.1.1. Inspired Speech as the Referent of πνευματικά 114
2.1.1.1. Max-Alain Chevallier and David L. Baker: πνευματικά as Glossolalia and Prophecy 116
2.1.1.2. D.W.B. Robinson: πνευματικά as Glossolalia 120
2.1.1.3. Synthesis: Chevallier, Baker and Robinson 122
2.1.2. Ralph P. Martin: πνευματικά as Gifts in Public Worship 124
2.1.3. Synthesis: χαρίσματα as the Hypernym of πνευματικά 126
2.2. Hyponymy II: πνευματικά as the Hypernym of χαρίσματα 126
3. MERONYMY 127
3.1. Robert L. Thomas 129
2.3.2. Heinz Schürmann 131
3.3. Richard Giesriegl 135
3.4. Ulrich Brockhaus 139
3.5. Friedrich Grau 144
3.6. Francis A. Sullivan 148
3.7. Synthesis: Meronymy 152
4. UNDEFINED SEMANTIC RELATIONSHIP: KENNETH S. HEMPHILL 154
CONCLUSION 158
PART III: READING 1 CORINTHIANS 12-14 FROM A MERONYMIC POINT OF VIEW 163
CHAPTER 5: READING 1 CORINTHIANS 12 FROM A MERONYMIC POINT OF VIEW 165
INTRODUCTION 165
1. CONFESSING Κύριος Ἰησοῦς ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ: 1 COR 12:1-3 165
1.1. Major Scholarly Interpretations of 1 Cor 12:1-3 165
1.2. Motif of Knowledge in 1 Cor 12:1-3 168
1.3. Potential Meaning of περὶ δὲ τῶν πνευματικῶν (1 Cor 12:1a) 169
1.4. Syntax of 1 Cor 12:2 172
1.5. Focus on the Spirit in 1 Cor 12:1-3 177
1.6. Synthesis: A Life Guided by the πνεῦμα (1 Cor 12:1-3) 184
2. THREE AGENTS ANNOUNCING A TRIPARTITE STRUCTURE: 1 COR 12:4-6 186
2.1. Parallel Structure, Key Location and Function of 1 Cor 12:4-6 within 1 Corinthians 12 187
2.2. The Meaning of 1 Cor 12:4-6 in Relation to 1 Cor 12:7-30 190
2.2.1. The meaning of 12:4 in Relation to 12:7-11 191
2.2.1.1. 1 Cor 12:7-11 191
2.2.1.2. Understanding 1 Cor 12:4 in Light of 12:7-11 195
2.2.2. The Meaning of 12:5 in Relation to 12:12-27 199
2.2.2.1. 1 Cor 12:12-27 200
2.2.2.1.1. A Flexible Metaphor 200
2.2.2.1.2. Exegesis of 1 Cor 12:12-27 203
2.2.2.2. Understanding 1 Cor 12:5 in Light of 1 Cor 12:12-27 212
2.2.3. The Meaning of 12:6 in Relation to 12:28-30 213
2.2.3.1. 1 Cor 12:28-30 213
2.2.3.2. Understanding 1 Cor 12:6 in Light of 1 Cor 12:28-30 218
2.2.4. Synthesis: The Relation between 1 Cor 12:4.5.6 from a Meronymic Point of View 220
3. THE TRANSITIONAL VERSE 1 COR 12:31, LINKING 1 CORINTHIANS 12 WITH 1 CORINTHIANS 13 223
3.1. Scholarly Understanding of the Relationship between 1 Cor 12:31a and 12:31b 224
3.2. Some Remarks Concerning the Scholarly Understanding of 12:31 229
3.3. Reading 1 Cor 12:31 as a Transitional Verse 230
3.3.1. Reading of 12:31a 230
3.3.2. Reading of 1 Cor 12:31b 232
3.3.2.1. Syntactical Function of καθ᾽ ὑπερβολήν 232
3.3.2.2. ὁδός 235
3.3.2.3. The Eschatological Dimension of ἀγάπη, the καθ᾽ ὑπερβολὴν ὁδός 237
CONCLUSION 239
CHAPTER 6: READING 1 CORINTHIANS 13 FROM A MERONYMIC POINT OF VIEW 243
INTRODUCTION 243
1. LITERARY GENRE, AUTHORSHIP AND RHETORICAL FUNCTION 243
2. EXEGESIS OF 1 CORINTHIANS 13 250
2.1. Continuation of 1 Corinthians 12 251
2.2. The Consequences of Lacking ἀγάπη (1 Cor 13:1-3) 251
2.3. Function of 1 Cor 13:4-7 260
2.4. Exegesis of 1 Cor 13:8-13 266
2.4.1. The Characteristics of the Present Age and the Coming Age: 1 Cor 13:8-12 267
2.4.2. The Future-Oriented Present: 1 Cor 13:13 272
2.5. Synthesis: ἀγάπη the καθ᾽ ὑπερβολὴν ὁδός in the Future-Oriented Present 278
CONCLUSION 279
CHAPTER 7: READING 1 CORINTHIANS 14 FROM A MERONYMIC POINT OF VIEW 281
INTRODUCTION 281
1. STRUCTURE OF THE TEXT 281
2. EXEGESIS OF 1 CORINTHIANS 14 282
2.1. The Discursive Part: Preference of Prophecy over Glossolalia (1 Cor 14:1-25) 282
2.1.1. Prophecy Preferred over Glossolalia: ἐκκλησία-Internal Reason (1 Cor 14:1-5) 283
2.1.2. Insufficiency of Glossolalia (1 Cor 14:6-19) 287
2.1.2.1. Unintelligibility Illustrated (1 Cor 14:6-12) 287
2.1.2.2. The Unfruitfulness of Unintelligibility (1 Cor 14:13-19) 294
2.1.3. Prophecy Preferred over Glossolalia: ἐκκλησία-External Reason (1 Cor 14:20-25) 296
2.2. Normative part: 1 Cor 14:26-35 297
2.2.1 General Rule for the Gathering of the ἐκκλησία (1 Cor 14:26) 297
2.2.2. Regulations for the Glossolalists during the Gathering of the ἐκκλησία (1 Cor 14:27-28) 299
2.2.3. Regulations for the Prophetic Activity during the Gathering of the ἐκκλησία (1 Cor 14:29-33a) 300
2.2.4. Regulations for the Women during the Evaluation of Prophecies (1 Cor 14:33b-35) 303
2.2.4.1. Non-Pauline Interpolation or Pauline Authenticity? 304
2.2.3.2. Delimitation of the Schweigegebot 306
2.2.3.3. Reading of 1 Cor 14:33b-35 307
2.3. The Conclusion of 1 Corinthians 12-14 (1 Cor 14:36-40) 313
2.3.1. The Double Exhortation in 1 Cor 14:36-40 313
4.2.3.2. To Behave as Is Appropriate for the πνευματικοί (1 Cor 14:36-38.39-40) 315
CONCLUSION 318
CHAPTER 8: SYNTHESIS OF READING 1 CORINTHIANS 12-14 FROM A MERONYMIC POINT OF VIEW 321
INTRODUCTION 321
1. STRUCTURE OF 1 CORINTHIANS 12-14 321
2. WHAT DOES PAUL WISH TO TEACH THE CORINTHIANS CONCERNING THE πνευματικά? 322
3. WHAT ARE THE πνευματικά? 326
3.1. What Is the Identity of the πνευματικοί? 327
3.2. How Do the πνευματικοί Build Up the ἐκκλησία? 329
3.3. Upshot: What Are πνευματικά? 330
4. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS 330
4.1. What Is the Relationship between πνευματικά and χαρίσματα? 330
4.2. What Are χαρίσματα in the New Testament? 331
4.3. What is the Relationship between ἀγάπη and χάρισμα? 333
PART IV: PROPHECY AS THE PARADIGM OF τὰ χαρίσματα τὰ μείζονα IN 1 CORINTHIANS 12-14 335
CHAPTER 9: PROPHECY AS THE PARADIGM OF τὰ χαρίσματα τὰ μείζονα IN 1 CORINTHIANS 12 AND 13 337
INTRODUCTION 337
1. PROPHECY IN 1 CORINTHIANS 12 337
2. PROPHECY IN 1 CORINTHIANS 13 338
2.1. προφητεία in 13:2 338
2.1.1. The Number of χαρίσματα in 13:2 338
2.1.2. The Content of προφητεία 341
2.2. προφητεία in 13:8-12 345
2.2.1. The Structure of 13:8-12 345
2.2.2. Closely Connected Terms: προφητεία and γνῶσις 347
2.2.3. Future Fate of προφητεία-γνῶσις and γλῶσσαι: καταργέω and παύομαι 347
2.2.4. In the Present Characterized as ἐκ μέρους (1 Cor 13:9-10) 349
2.2.5. Two Illustrations (1 Cor 13:11-12) 350
2.2.5.1. The νήπιος – ἀνήρ Image (1 Cor 13:11) 350
2.2.5.2. Exegesis of 1 Cor 13:12 351
2.2.5.2.1. Parallel Structure of 1 Cor 13:12 351
2.2.5.2.2. The Content of 1 Cor 13:12 352
CONCLUSION 366
CHAPTER 10: PROPHECY AS THE PARADIGM OF τὰ χαρίσματα τὰ μείζονα IN 1 CORINTHIANS 14 369
INTRODUCTION 369
1. PROPHECY IN THE DISCURSIVE PART (1 COR 14:1-25) 369
1.1. The Effects of Intelligibility (1 Cor 14:1-5) 369
1.1.1. οἰκοδομή 370
3.1.1.2. παράκλησις and παραμυθία 372
1.2. Emphasis on Intelligibility (1 Cor 14:6-19) 376
1.3. The Effects of Prophecy on the Unbelievers (1 Cor 14:20-25) 376
1.3.1. The Puzzle of 1 Cor 14:20-25 377
1.3.2. Solving the Puzzle of 1 Cor 14:20-25 378
1.3.3. Synthesis of Our Solution to the Puzzle 393
2. PROPHECY IN THE NORMATIVE PART (1 COR 14:26-35) 394
3. PROPHECY IN 1 COR 14:36-40, THE GENERAL CONCLUSION OF 1 CORINTHIANS 12-14 400
CONCLUSION 401
GENERAL CONCLUSION 405
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: TH
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