Teacher communities play a central role in teachers’ professional development. This study provides a systematic review of empirical research on teacher communities (TCs). Based upon predefined selection criteria, 40 studies were analysed using a narrative method. Three different types of TCs were identified: formal, member-oriented with a pre-set agenda, and formative TCs. Results showed that different stakeholders (governments, school principals, teachers) are involved and their different perspectives and degrees of involvement (distinguishing between TCs realised bottom-up or top-down) impact TCs. Finally, several conditions for success were reported: supportive leadership, group dynamics and composition, and trust and respect.