The proposal that motion is processed by multiple mechanisms in the human brain has received little anatomical support so far. Here, we compared higher- and lower-level motion processing in the human brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We observed activation of an inferior parietal lobule (IPL) motion region by isoluminant red-green gratings when saliency of one color was increased and by long-range apparent motion at 7 Hz but not 2 Hz. This higher order motion region represents the entire visual field, while traditional motion regions predominantly process contralateral motion. Our results suggest that there are two motion-processing systems in the human brain: a contralateral lower-level luminance-based system, extending from hMT/V5+ into dorsal IPS and STS, and a bilateral higher-level saliency-based system in IPL.