A Survey on the Current Status and Future Challenges Towards Objective Skills Assessment in Endovascular Surgery
Mazomenos, Evangelos × Chang, Ping-Lin Rolls, Alexander Hawkes, David Bicknell, Colin Vander Poorten, Emmanuel Riga, Celia Desjardins, Adrien Stoyanov, Danail #
Journal of Medical Robotics Research vol:1 issue:3 pages:1-18
Minimally invasive endovascular interventions have evolved rapidly over the past decade, facilitated by breakthroughs in medical imaging and sensing, instrumentation and most recently robotics. Catheter-based operations are potentially safer and applicable to a wider patient population due to the reduced comorbidity. As a result endovascular surgery has become the preferred treatment
option for conditions previously treated with open surgery and as such the number of patients undergoing endovascular interventions is increasing every year. This fact coupled with a proclivity for reduced working hours results in a requirement for efficient training and assessment of new surgeons, that deviates from the "see one, do one, teach one" model introduced by William Halsted, so that trainees obtain operational expertise in a shorter period. Developing more objective assessment tools based on quantitative metrics is now a recognized need in interventional training and this manuscript reports the current literature for endovascular skills assessment and the associated emerging technologies. A systematic search was performed on PubMed (MEDLINE), Google Scholar,
IEEEXplore and known journals using the keywords, "endovascular surgery", "surgical skills", "endovascular skills", "surgical training endovascular" and "catheter skills". Focusing explicitly on endovascular surgical skills, we group related works into three categories
based on the metrics used; structured scales and checklists, simulation-based and motion-based metrics. This review highlights the key findings in each category and also provides suggestions for new research opportunities towards fully objective and automated surgical assessment solutions.