Giornale Italiano di Filologia vol:66 pages:267-280
In 1444 Lorenzo Valla was charged of heresy and was brought to trial by the Inquisition. One of the main reasons was the disquisition between Valla and fra Antonio da Bitonto on the authenticity of the Apostles’ Creed: if Antonio thought that the Creed was composed by the Apostles during the day of Pentecost, Valla rejected his opinion saying that the first Creed created was the Nicene Creed. In support of fra Antonio’s thesis, the bishop of Pozzuoli showed Valla’s patron Arnaut Roger de Pallars a passage of the Decretum Gratiani in which Gratian says: Sancti Patres in concilio Niceno de omni orbe terrarum convenientes iuxta fidem evangelicam et apostolicam secundum post Apostolos symbolum condiderunt. First of all, Valla discovered that Gratian quoted this sentence from Isidore of Seville’s Etymologiae; then, he said that the correct reading was secundo (Sancti Patres in concilio Niceno ... secundo post Apostolos symbolum condiderunt) and that he found this reading in an ancient manuscript of Isidore (see Antidotum in Pogium, IV, p. 359 Petrus). In this article the author demonstrates not only that this conjecture is unproven, but also that probably Valla invented the existence of this manuscript to defend himself from charges of heresy.