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Title: "He Loved Them Perfectly.” The Johannine Footwashing as the Sign of Perfect Love: An Exegetical Study of John 13:1-20
Other Titles: "He Loved Them Perfectly.” The Johannine Footwashing as the Sign of Perfect Love: An Exegetical Study of John 13:1-20
Authors: Mathew, Bincy; S0195432
Issue Date: 8-Sep-2016
Table of Contents: TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i
TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
ABBREVIATIONS xi
BIBLIOGRAPHY xvii
GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER ONE
THE FOOTWASHING: A STATUS QUAESTIONIS
1.1. THE FOOTWASHING: NON-SACRAMENTAL INTERPRETATIONS 9
1.1.1. THE FOOTWASHING AS THE SALVIFIC DEATH OF JESUS 10
1.1.1.1. Alan Culpepper (1991) 10
1.1.1.2. Marianne M. Thompson (2003) 13
1.1.2. THE FOOTWASHING AS THE VICARIOUS OR ATONING DEATH OF JESUS 17
1.1.2.1. David Gibson (2007) 17
1.1.2.2. Otfried Hofius (2009) 20
1.1.2.3. Mark Matson (2014) 22
1.2. THE FOOTWASHING: SACRAMENTAL INTERPRETATIONS 24
1.2.1. FRANCIS J. MOLONEY (1991) 25
1.2.2. CHRISTOPHER THOMAS (1991) 28
CONCLUSION 32
CHAPTER TWO
“EXCEPT FOR THE FEET”
JOHN 13:10: A TEXT-CRITICAL ANALYSIS
2.1. VARIANT READINGS OF JOHN 13:10 33
2.2. EXTERNAL CRITICISM 35
2.3. INTERNAL CRITICISM 37
2.3.1. TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROBABILITY 37
2.3.1.1. Long Reading: The More Difficult Reading 37
2.3.1.1.1. Are λούω and νίπτω Synonyms? 39
2.3.1.1.1.1. Leviticus 15:11 40
2.3.1.1.1.2. Tobit 7:9 40
2.3.1.1.1.3. Philo, De somniis 41
2.3.1.1.1.4. Testament of Levi 9:11-12 42
2.3.1.1.1.5. Aramaic Levi Document 19-25b 42
2.3.1.1.1.6. Papyri Oxyrhynchus 840 43
2.3.1.1.1.7. Archaeological Evidence 44
2.3.1.2. The Long Reading Easily Explains Other Variations 45
2.3.2. INTRINSIC PROBABILITY 46
2.3.2.1. The Johannine Use of λούω and νίπτω 47
2.3.2.2. The Long Reading: A Grammatical Consideration 51
CONCLUSION 55
CHAPTER THREE
“AH, YES! TO GENEROUS SOULS HOW NOBLE EVERY TASK!”
FOOTWASHING IN THE ANCIENT JEWISH, GREEK, AND ROMAN LITERATURE
3.1. PREVIOUS RESEARCH ON JOHN 13 IN RELATION TO ANCIENT FOOTWASHING 57
3.2. FOOTWASHING IN THE JEWISH CULTURE 61
3.2.1. WASHING ONE’S OWN FEET 63
3.2.1.1. Hygiene, Comfort and Hospitality 63
3.2.1.2. Ritual Setting 67
3.2.2. WASHING SOMEONE ELSE’S FEET 71
3.2.2.1. An Expression of Hospitality 71
3.2.2.2. An Expression of Intimacy and Love 75
3.2.3. METAPHORICAL FOOTWASHING 79
3.3. FOOTWASHING IN ANCIENT GREEK CULTURE 81
3.3.1. WASHING ONE’S OWN FEET 82
3.3.1.1. Hygiene and Comfort 82
3.3.1.2. Ritual Purpose 84
3.3.1.3. Metaphorical Footwashing 85
3.3.2. WASHING SOMEONE ELSE’S FEET 86
3.3.2.1. An Expression of Hospitality 86
3.3.2.2. Metaphorical Footwashing 90
3.3.2.3. Footwashing and Slavery 90
3.3.2.4. Footwashing in Banquet Settings 91
3.4. FOOTWASHING IN ANCIENT ROMAN CULTURE 94
3.4.1. WASHING ONE’S OWN FEET 94
3.4.1.1. Hygiene and Comfort 94
3.4.1.2. Ritual Settings 95
3.4.2. WASHING SOMEONE ELSE’S FEET 97
3.4.2.1. An Expression of Intimacy and Love 97
3.4.2.2. Footwashing in Banquet Settings 98
3.5. JOHN 13 AND THE FOOTWASHING PARALLELS 100
CHAPTER FOUR
“BEFORE THE FEAST OF THE PASSOVER”
THE STRUCTURE AND THE ROLE OF JOHN 13:1-20 IN ITS CONTEXT
4.1. THE STRUCTURE OF JOHN 13:1-38 105
4.1.1. DISCOURSE DEVELOPMENT MARKERS 106
4.1.2. TEMPORAL MARKERS 108
4.1.3. THE DRAMATIS PERSONAE 109
4.1.4. THE CHIASTIC STRUCTURE 109
4.1.5. INCLUSIO IN JOHN 13:1-38 113
4.1.6. JOHN 13:1-20: THE FIRST SUB-UNIT 115
4.2. JOHN 13:1-20 IN RELATION TO CHAPTERS 1-12 119
4.2.1. THE PASSOVER 120
4.2.2. THE HOUR 121
4.2.3. FULFILMENT OF THE SCRIPTURE 122
4.2.4. THE DRAMATIS PERSONAE 122
4.2.5. ACTION-DIALOGUE-MONOLOGUE PATTERN 123
4.3. JOHN 13 IN RELATION TO CHAPTERS 14-17 124
4.3.1. LITERARY STRUCTURE 124
4.3.2. THE LITERARY GENRE OF JOHN 13-17 127
4.3.2.1. Jewish Farewell Discourse 128
4.3.2.2. Greek and Roman Farewell Discourse 130
4.3.2.3. The Greek Symposium 131
CONCLUSION 133
CHAPTER FIVE
“I AM AMONG YOU AS ONE WHO SERVES”
A LITERARY-CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF JOHN 13:1-20
5.1. A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF LITERARY-CRITICISM ON JOHN 13 135
5.1.1. ORAL TRADITION 135
5.1.2. WRITTEN TRADITION(S) THEORY 137
5.1.2.1. Theory of Multiple Traditions 137
5.1.2.2. Theory of A Single Tradition 144
5.1.3. THE SYNOPTICS’ INFLUENCE ON JOHN 13 147
5.1.3.1. Independence of John 13 from the Synoptics 147
5.1.3.2. Dependence of John 13 on the Synoptics 152
5.1.3.3. A Homogenous Composition? 159
5.2. A LITERARY-CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF JOHN 13:1-20 162
5.2.1. THE JOHANNINE NARRATIVE INTRODUCTIONS (13:1-3) 163
5.2.2. THE PRESENCE OF SATAN IN THE LAST SUPPER 167
5.2.3. THE DEPARTURE OF JUDAS (JOHN 13:30) 171
5.2.4. JESUS, THE SERVING MASTER (JOHN 13:4-5) 173
5.2.5. THE SAYING IN JOHN 13:16 176
5.2.5.1. A Debate over John’s Influence of Matthew 10 178
5.2.5.2. John 13:16 and Matthew 10:24-25a: An Analysis 181
5.2.6. THE SAYING IN JOHN 13:20 183
5.2.6.1. John’s Use of ὁ λαμβάνων Instead of ὁ δεχόμενος 184
5.2.6.2. The Use of πέμπω for ἀποστέλλω 185
5.2.6.3. The Use of Indefinite τινα πέμπω for the Definite ὑμεῖς 185
CONCLUSION 186
CHAPTER SIX
“HE LOVED THEM PERFECTLY”
THE IDENTITY AND MISSION OF JESUS AND THE DISCIPLES (13:1-A, 20-A')
6.1. THE IDENTITY AND MISSION OF JESUS, JOHN 13:1 (A) 189
6.1.1. THE QUESTION OF THE SYNTAX OF JOHN 13:1 189
6.1.1.1. John 13:1 in Previous Research 190
6.1.1.2. A New Proposal for the Syntactic Structure of John 13:1 192
6.1.1.2.1. Arguments against the Three-Sentence Structure 192
6.1.1.2.2. Arguments against the Two-Sentence Structure 194
6.1.1.2.3. Arguments in Favour of the One-sentence Structure 194
6.1.1.3. A New Translation for Jn 13:1 195
6.1.2. THE TEMPORAL REFERENCE 196
6.1.3. THE KNOWLEDGE OF JESUS 198
6.1.4. THE HOUR OF JESUS 200
6.1.4.1. The Verb μεταβαίνω 202
6.1.4.2. The Prepositional Phrase ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου 203
6.1.4.3. The Johannine Use of πρὸς τὸν πατέρα 206
6.1.5. THE LOVE OF JESUS FOR HIS OWN 207
6.1.6. THE ULTIMATE MANIFESTATION OF LOVE OF JESUS 210
6.1.6.1. The Meaning of εἰς τέλος 210
6.1.6.2. The Final Act of Love of Jesus 211
6.2. THE IDENTITY AND MISSION OF ‘HIS OWN,’ JOHN 13:20 (Aꞌ) 216
6.2.1. THE RECEIVER OF THE ONE SENT BY JESUS 217
6.2.1.1. The Receivers of Disciples 217
6.2.1.2. The One Sent by Jesus 218
6.2.2. THE FATHER, THE CENTRE OF MISSION 220
CONCLUSION 222
CHAPTER SEVEN
“I KNOW WHOM I HAVE CHOSEN”
JUDAS AND JESUS: BREACHING AND BRIDGING THE CODE OF TABLE FELLOWSHIP (13:2-B, 13:18-19-Bꞌ)
7.1. LOVE IS DENIED, JOHN 13:2 (B) 223
7.1.1. AN ASCENSIVE καί 223
7.1.2. THE GENITIVE ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTION 224
7.1.3. THE PROGRESSING SUPPER 225
7.1.4. THE CHARACTER JUDAS 226
7.1.5. WHOSE HEART IS INVOLVED? 228
7.1.6. THE NAME Ἰούδας Σίμωνος Ἰσκαριώτου 230
7.1.7. ἵνα παραδοῖ 235
7.2. LOVE IS AFFIRMED, JOHN 13:18-19 (Bꞌ) 236
7.2.1. Οὐ περὶ πάντων ὑμῶν λέγω 237
7.2.2. ἐγὼ οἶδα τίνας ἐξελεξάμην 237
7.2.3. THE OLD TESTAMENT SAYING IN JOHN 13:18 238
7.2.3.1. The Noun τρώγω 240
7.2.3.2. The Phrase μου τὸν ἄρτον 241
7.2.3.3. The Johannine ἐπαίρω 244
7.2.3.4. The Johannine πτέρνα 246
7.2.4. JOHN 13:18,21 AND MARK 14:18, 21 (MATTHEW 26:21; LUKE 22:21) 248
7.2.5. BELIEVING JESUS AS ἐγώ εἰμι (JOHN 13:19) 250
7.2.5.1. The Verb πιστεύω in John 251
7.2.5.2. The Johannine ἐγώ εἰμι in John 13:19 255
7.2.5.2.1. The ἐγώ εἰμι with Implicit or Explicit Predicate Compliment 255
7.2.5.2.2. The Absolute ἐγώ εἰμι 256
7.2.6. LOVE FOR ENEMY IN JOHN? 259
CONCLUSION 263
CHAPTER EIGHT
“IF YOU KNOW … IF YOU DO”
THE AUTHORITY OF THE ONE WHO WASHES THE FEET (13:3-C, 16-17-Cꞌ)
8.1. THE AUTHORITY OF JESUS, JOHN 13:3 (C) 266
8.1.1. ὅτι πάντα ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ ὁ πατὴρ εἰς τὰς χεῖρας 266
8.1.2. JESUS’ ORIGIN AND DESTINY 269
8.2. AUTHORITY OF THE MASTER AND THE SENDER, JOHN 13:16-17 (Cꞌ) 272
8.2.1. ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν 272
8.2.2. οὐκ ἔστιν δοῦλος μείζων τοῦ κυρίου αὐτοῦ 274
8.2.2.1. The Comparative οὐκ ἔστιν μείζων 274
8.2.2.2. The First Components of the Comparison, δοῦλος and κύριος 274
8.2.2.3. The Second Components of Comparison, ἀπόστολος and ὁ πέμψας 275
8.2.3. BLESSEDNESS OF THE ONE WHO DOES 280
8.2.3.1. The Adjective μακάριος 280
8.2.3.2. The Conditional Clauses 282
8.2.3.3. Correlation between Knowing and Doing 283
CONCLUSION 285
CHAPTER NINE
“I HAVE GIVEN YOU A SIGN”
JESUS’ ὑπόδειγμα: THE GIFT AND TASK FOR THE DISCIPLES (13:4-10-D, 12-15-D')
9.1. The Footwashing, Jesus’ Gift of Life-Giving Love, 13:4-11 (D) 287
9.1.1. PREPARATION FOR THE ACT OF LOVE 287
9.1.2. WASHING THE FEET PROPER 290
9.1.2.1. εἶτα βάλλει ὕδωρ εἰς τὸν νιπτῆρα 291
9.1.2.2. Water in John 13 291
9.1.3. καὶ ἤρξατο νίπτειν τοὺς πόδας τῶν μαθητῶν 299
9.1.4. καὶ ἐκμάσσειν τῷ λεντίῳ ᾧ ἦν διεζωσμένος 300
9.1.5. THE MISUNDERSTOOD IDENTITY OF JESUS 300
9.1.6. ὃ ἐγὼ ποιῶ σὺ οὐκ οἶδας ἄρτι, γνώσῃ δὲ μετὰ ταῦτα 302
9.1.7. THE EFFECT OF THE ACTION 303
9.1.7.1. οὐ μὴ νίψῃς μου τοὺς πόδας εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα 303
9.1.7.2. ἐὰν μὴ νίψω σε, οὐκ ἔχεις μέρος μετ᾽ἐμοῦ 304
9.1.7.2.1. μέρος μετ᾽ἐμοῦ 304
9.1.7.2.2. The Present Indicative ἔχεις 307
9.1.8. MISUNDERSTANDING PETER 308
9.1.8.1. A Curious Peter in John 13:24 309
9.1.8.2. Cowardly Love of Peter in John 13:36-38 310
9.1.8.3. Status and Role: Seeing Peter through Another Prism 311
9.1.9. καὶ ὑμεῖς καθαροί ἐστε, ἀλλ᾽ οὐχὶ πάντες 313
9.1.10. THE PARENTHESIS 314
9.2. THE FOOTWASHING: THE TASK FOR LIFE-GIVING LOVE, JOHN 13:12-15 (Dꞌ) 314
9.2.1. COMPLETING THE ACTION 314
9.2.1.1. γινώσκετε, Imperative or Interrogative? 315
9.2.1.2. νίπτειν τοὺς πόδας as Jesus’ Doing 316
9.2.2. JESUS, ὁ διδάσκαλος and ὁ κύριος (JOHN 13:13) 318
9.2.2.1. Jesus, ὁ διδάσκαλος 318
9.2.2.2. Jesus, ὁ κύριος 320
9.2.2.3 ὁ διδάσκαλος καί ὁ κύριος in John 13:13 323
9.2.3. THE OBLIGATORY NATURE OF THE FOOTWASHING 324
9.2.4. THE SIGN OF LOVE (JOHN 13:15) 327
9.2.4.1. The Term ὑπόδειγμα 327
9.2.4.2. The ἵνα Clause 332
9.2.4.3. καθὼς ... καὶ ὑμεῖς 332
CONCLUSION 334
GENERAL CONCLUSION 337
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KU Leuven publication type: TH
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