In this systematic review, 17 articles were analyzed focusing on three research
questions: (1) How is pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) conceptualized in empirical
research on foreign and second language (FL/L2) education? (2) How is PCK studied in
empirical research on FL/L2 education? (3) What are the main conclusions of empirical
research on FL/L2 education? An overview of the most important research findings does
not reveal generalizable conclusions from research on FL/L2 PCK. The research domain is
characterized by a variety of conceptualizations and research methods.