This article presents a review of the use of optimisation models for pedestrian evacuation and design
problems. The articles are classified according to the problem type that is studied, the level of model realism,
and the modelling or solution technique. To substantiate the classification criteria and to provide a
background for the reader, relevant empirical research and descriptive models (e.g., social-force and cellular
automata models) are discussed. We conclude that most of the recent models explicitly include
pedestrian dynamics, specifically congestion, but more attention should be given to calibration and
implementation of the proposed models. Furthermore, optimisation models could benefit from including
some of the modelling techniques used in descriptive models.