Naski, Nadia × Gajjar, Madhavsai Bourougaa, Karima Malbert-Colas, Laurence Fåhraeus, Robin Candeias, Marco M #
Cell Cycle vol:8 issue:1 pages:31-4
The E3 ligase Mdm2 is a key regulator of p53 activity via a complex regulatory feedback system that involves all levels of expression control including transcription, mRNA translation and protein degradation. Best known is the effect of p53 on Mdm2 transcription and the capacity of Mdm2 to target p53 for degradation, but more recently the role of Mdm2 as a positive regulator of p53 activity has also started to emerge. Mdm2 stimulates p53 mRNA translation by binding the p53 mRNA and, interestingly, this interaction also suppresses Mdm2's capacity to promote p53 polyubiquitination and degradation. Another interesting aspect of the p53 mRNA-Mdm2 interaction is that the p53 mRNA sequence encoding the amino acids which bind the N-terminus of Mdm2 is the same that interacts with the Mdm2 RING domain. Indeed, the regulatory elements for controlling Mdm2-dependent expression of p53 are derived from the same p53 genomic sequence. In addition, the RNA binding and the E3 ligase domain of Mdm2 overlap, indicati that the two functions of Mdm2 to control p53 synthesis and degradation have co-evolved in parallel in both p53 and Mdm2. Here we illustrate how the p53-Mdm2 protein-protein and p53 mRNA-Mdm2 interactions affect Mdm2-mediated control of p53 expression using the Phe19Ala p53 mutant. We discuss how the new insights into the regulation of p53 expression levels can help to shed light on the origin of this elegant feedback system and on the function of Mdm2 isoforms.