Veröffentlichunges des Institutes für Europäische Geschichte Mainz vol:Supplement 111
Christianity and National Identity in Twentieth-Century Europe: Conflict, Community, and the Social Order pages:169-188
This essay assesses the different ways in which the Catholic Church in particular related to either the nation-state or the idea of a European federation (while leaving aside attitudes towards larger forms of “internationalism”, including the League of Nations), from roughly the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, into the period after the Second World War. I will mainly focus on Catholics, since Protestants, especially Lutherans, hardly expressed views on the nation as Christians and, even less, on Europe, as they accepted in principle the autonomy of the secular. I look at different societal actors, which for the Catholic world includes the Holy See as well as the clergy high and low, confessional and Christian democratic parties and movements, social and cultural associations and individual thinkers.