Abele, H × Barberio, E Dubbers, D Glück, F Hardy, JC Marciano, WJ Serebrov, A Severijns, Natalis #
European Physical Journal C vol:33 issue:1 pages:1-8
In the Standard Model of elementary particles, quark-mixing is expressed in terms of a 3 x 3 unitary matrix V, the so called Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Significant unitarity checks are so far possible for the first row of this matrix. This article reviews the experimental and theoretical information on these matrix elements. On the experimental side, we find a 2.2 sigma to 2.7 sigma deviation from unitarity, which conflicts with the Standard Model.