In this article we derive the full interacting effective actions for supersymmetric D-branes in arbitrary bosonic type II supergravity backgrounds. The actions are presented in terms of component fields up to second order in fermions. As one expects, the actions are built from the supercovariant derivative operator and the kappa-symmetry projector. The results take a compact and elegant form exhibiting K-symmetry, as well as supersymmetry in a background with Killing spinors. We give the explicit transformation rules for these symmetries in all cases, including the M2-brane. As an example, we analyze the N = 2 super-worldvolume field theory defined by a test D4-brane in the supergravity background produced by a large number of D0-branes. This example displays rigid supersymmetry in a curved spacetime.