European position paper on the anatomical terminology of the internal nose and paranasal sinuses
Lund, Valerie J × Stammberger, Heinz Fokkens, Wytske J Beale, Tim Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel Eloy, Philippe Georgalas, Christos Gerstenberger, Claus Hellings, Peter Herman, Philippe Hosemann, Werner G Jankowski, Roger Jones, Nick Jorissen, Mark Leunig, Andreas Onerci, Metin Rimmer, Joanne Rombaux, Philippe Simmen, Daniel Tomazic, Peter Valentin Tschabitscherr, Manfred Welge-Luessen, Antje #
International Rhinologic Society
Rhinology issue:24 pages:1-34
The advent of endoscopic sinus surgery led to a resurgence of interest in the detailed anatomy of the internal nose and paranasal sinuses. However, the official Terminologica Anatomica used by basic anatomists omits many of the structures of surgical importance. This led to numerous clinical anatomy papers and much discussion about the exact names and definitions for the structures of surgical relevance. This European Position Paper on the Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses was conceived to re-evaluate the anatomical terms in common usage by endoscopic sinus surgeons and to compare this with the official Terminologica Anatomica. The text is a concise summary of all the structures encountered during routine endoscopic surgery in the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and at the interface with the orbit and skull base but does not provide a comprehensive text for advanced skull base surgery. It draws on a detailed review of the literature and provides a consensus where several options are available, defining the anatomical structure in simple terms and in English. It is recognised that this is an area of great variation and some indication of the frequency with which these variants are encountered is given in the text and table. All major anatomical points are illustrated, drawing on the expertise of the multi-national and multi-disciplinary contributors to this project.