We have performed voltage dependent imaging and spatially resolved spectroscopy on the (110) surface of Te-doped GaAs single crystals with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM). A large fraction of the observed defects are identified as Te dopant atoms which can be observed down to the fifth subsurface layer. For negative sample voltages, the dopant atoms are surrounded by Friedel charge-density oscillations. Spatially resolved spectroscopy above the dopant atoms and above defect free areas of the GaAs(110) surface reveals the presence of conductance peaks inside the semiconductor band gap. The appearance of the peaks can be linked to charges residing on states which are localized within the tunnel junction area. We show that these localized states can be present on the doped GaAs surface as well as at the STM tip apex. [S0163-1829(99)08427-1].