Many religious minorities in Europe have vulnerable employment positions and face higher unemployment. Yet, for many people religion or belief (or the absence thereof) are important aspects of their personal identity which is not always forsaken when entering the workplace. This doctoral thesis in law examines human rights and anti-discrimination legislation in light of important European aspirations of employment participation and societal inclusion of minorities. This thesis considers the question regarding the appropriate level of protection to be awarded to religious identity in the workplace in light of the need to increase socio-economic inclusion, and also takes a clear position in this regard. In this thesis, the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights is analyzed, as well as the laws of five countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, the UK, the USA and Canada) using a contextual and comparative approach to the question of religion or belief in the workplace.