Title: 3D phase-field simulation and characterization of microstructure evolution during Liquid Phase Sintering
Authors: Ravash, Hamed
Vleugels, Jef
Moelans, Nele
Issue Date: 25-Aug-2014
Conference: International Conference on Sintering 2014 location:Dresden, Germany date:24-28 August 2014
Abstract: Liquid phase sintering (LPS) is widely used as a materials processing technique for high-temperature
applications. The main advantages compared to solid state sintering are a relatively fast densification,
lower sintering temperatures and higher final densities. In LPS, particle-particle contact size and
distribution , 3-D coordination number, connectivity , and contiguity are important microstructure
parameters which, to a large extent, determine the mechanical properties of the final materials [1].
These features all depend on the grain size, solid volume fraction and dihedral angle during sintering.
The dihedral angle is an important parameter in LPS. It is the angle formed between the 2 solid-liquid
interfaces at the intersection of a grain boundary with the liquid. A higher solid volume fraction,
on the other hand, favors larger 3-D coordination number, connectivity , and contiguity. In practice,
studying the correlation between these parameters and direct measurement of them is not a trivial
task. Among them, 3-D measurement of dihedral angle is believed to be the most challenging one.
In the current study, phase-field modeling is employed to simulate LPS in two phase systems (solid
and liquid) [2, 3]. Simulations are performed for the different ratios of grain boundary to solid-liquid
energies and the different solid volume fractions. To create initial structures with high solid volume
fraction, an advanced particle packing algorithm is employed. An extended sparse bounding-box
algorithm [4] is used to speed-up the computations and makes it computationally efficient for 3D
simulations. Contiguity, connectivity and, the three dimensional coordination number were measured
in the self similar regime. The results were compared with empirical rules and experimental data and
used to estimate the mean 3-D dihedral angle.

[1] German, R.M, Suri, P, Park, S.J, Review:liquid phase sintering, mater Sci, 44 , 1-39, 2009.
[2] Moelans, N., Blanpain, B., Wollants, P., Quantitative phase-field approach for simulating grain
growth in anisotropic systems with arbitrary inclination and misorientation dependence, Physical
Review , 101 , 024113-1, 2008.
[3] Folch, R., Plapp, M., Quantitative phase-field modeling of two-phase growth, PhysiReview, 72,
011606, 2005.
[4] L. Vanherpe, N. Moelans, B. Blanpain, S. Vandewalle, “Bounding box framework for efficient
phase field simulation of grain growth in anisotropic systems”, Comp. Mater. Sci, 50, 2221-
2231, 2011
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IMa
Appears in Collections:Sustainable Metals Processing and Recycling
Surface and Interface Engineered Materials

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